Antinuclear Antibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: an Update

  • Anna Stochmal
  • Joanna Czuwara
  • Maria Trojanowska
  • Lidia Rudnicka


Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and internal organs, vasculopathy, and dysregulation of immune system. A diagnostically important feature of immunological abnormalities in systemic sclerosis is the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, which may be detected in 90–95% of patients with either of the four main laboratory methods: immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and immunoblotting. There are several antinuclear antibodies specific for systemic sclerosis. These include antibodies against topoisomerase (anti-TOPO I), kinetochore proteins (ACA), RNA polymerase enzyme (anti-RNAP III), ribonuclear proteins (anti-U11/U12 RNP, anti-U1 RNP, anti-U3 RNP) and nucleolar antigens (anti-Th/To, anti-NOR 90, anti-Ku, antiRuvBL1/2, and anti-PM/Scl). Autoantibodies specific for systemic sclerosis have been linked to distinct clinical features. Therefore, detecting a particular antibody type is important in predicting a possible organ involvement and prognosis and may have an impact on monitoring and treatment.


Antinuclear antibodies Connective tissue diseases Diagnosis Immunology Malignancy Prognosis Scleroderma Systemic sclerosis 



The authors thank Mr. Michał Zaremba for taking photographs of the immunofluorescence patterns.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Stochmal
    • 1
  • Joanna Czuwara
    • 1
  • Maria Trojanowska
    • 2
  • Lidia Rudnicka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Arthritis CenterBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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