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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 23–38 | Cite as

Transglutaminase 2 and Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies in Celiac Disease: a Review

  • Tiina Rauhavirta
  • Minna Hietikko
  • Teea Salmi
  • Katri LindforsEmail author
Article

Abstract

Celiac disease is a common inflammatory disorder with a prevalence of 1–2 % in which a distinct dietary wheat, rye, and barley component, gluten, induces small-bowel mucosal villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and inflammation. The small-bowel mucosal damage can be reversed by a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which is currently the only effective treatment for the condition. A key player in the pathogenetic process leading to the enteropathy is played by a protein called transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which is able to enzymatically modify gluten-derived gliadin peptides. The TG2-catalyzed deamidation of the gliadin peptides results in their increased binding affinity to the disease-predisposing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 molecules, thus enabling a strong immune response to be launched. Blocking the enzymatic activity of TG2 has thus been suggested as a suitable novel pharmacological approach to treat celiac disease. By virtue of its transamidation capacity, TG2 is also able to cross-link gliadin peptides to itself, this resulting in the generation of TG2-gliadin peptide complexes whose presence might provide an explanation for the generation of the TG2 autoantibodies characteristic of celiac disease. Due to their excellent specificity for the disorder, the TG2-targeted autoantibodies are widely used in the diagnostics as a first-line test to select patients for gastrointestinal endoscopy. More recently, it has come to be appreciated that these autoantibodies and also the TG2-specific B cells might play an active role in the disease pathogenesis. In this review, we assess the role of TG2, TG2-specific B cells, and autoantibodies in celiac disease.

Keywords

Celiac disease Transglutaminase 2 Transglutaminase 2 autoantibodies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by funding from the Academy of Finland, the Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility Areas of Tampere University Hospital (Grant 9T058), the Finnish Medical Foundation, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiina Rauhavirta
    • 1
  • Minna Hietikko
    • 1
  • Teea Salmi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Katri Lindfors
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pediatric Research CenterUniversity of Tampere and Tampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyTampere University HospitalTampereFinland

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