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A Comprehensive Artificial Sweat Study for Quantitation of Nickel and Other Inorganic Elements Released from Imitation Earrings Purchased in Istanbul Market

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Abstract

Element sensitization is frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis, and Ni is the main reason for this condition owing to daily use of different Ni-containing items. European Union established a limit of 0.2 μg/cm2/week Ni release for the items by the Ni Directive in 2004. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of element release of imitation earrings sold in different points of Istanbul with different prices and consider the element release levels including 29 trace and toxic elements. After calculation of released nickel amounts, 31.80% of earrings (71 of 223) were observed over the limit of European Commission Directive’s migration limit. Minimum and maximum nickel release amounts were found as 0.21 and 30.11 μg/cm2/week, respectively, and mean level was found 3.24 μg/cm2/week among 71 positive earrings. Results showed that essential part of imitation earrings used especially by women release nickel particles over the European Commission Directive’s migration limit. In addition, other elements such as Cu, Cr, and Co were found to be in the structure of the imitation earrings, as well as high amounts of toxic element Pb.

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Acknowledgements

Author would like to thank The Scientific And Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and Scientific Research Fund of Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Turkey, for support of this work with the Project numbers 213S098 and BYP-54488, respectively. The author also grateful to Assoc. Prof. Hayriye Vehid for her valuable contribution to the statistical evaluation of the study’s findings and to Murat Yayla and Sevcan Şemen for their technical assistant.

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Correspondence to Selda Mercan.

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Mercan, S. A Comprehensive Artificial Sweat Study for Quantitation of Nickel and Other Inorganic Elements Released from Imitation Earrings Purchased in Istanbul Market. Biol Trace Elem Res (2020) doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02042-w

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Keywords

  • Artificial sweat
  • Earrings
  • Nickel allergy
  • Nickel release
  • Toxic elements