Dietary Intake of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead through the Consumption of Meat, Liver, and Kidney and Assessment of Human Health Risk in Birjand, Southeast of Iran

  • Tayebeh Zeinali
  • Fatemeh Salmani
  • Kobra NaseriEmail author


This study aimed to evaluate the mean concentration of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in the meat and offal of cow and sheep. Also, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and health risk of these metals were calculated. Analysis of metals was undertaken by the use of an inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). All samples were contaminated with all metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear differentiation of cow and sheep in both the kidney and liver samples. In the liver and kidney, level of Cd, Cu, and Pb were positively correlated. The highest target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated for Pb. Cd level in cow kidney had the highest carcinogenic rate (CR). Although, hazard index (HI) was lower than one, consumption of muscle especially in children should be noticed in both national and international consumers due to higher level of HI.


Meat Kidney Liver Estimated daily intake Target hazard quotient Carcinogenic rate 


Authors’ Contributions

TZ and KN contributed in the conception and design of the study. FS performed the statistical analysis and drafting of the manuscript. TZ conducted the experiments and wrote the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding Information

The authors acknowledge the research and technology deputy of Birjand University of Medical Sciences for support of this study (grant No 4273).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study was carried out according to the international ethical guidelines and approved by the ethical committee of Birjand University of Medical Sciences.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Supplementary material

12011_2019_1637_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Table 1S (DOCX 13 kb)
12011_2019_1637_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Table 2S (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of HealthBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  2. 2.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of HealthBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  3. 3.Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research center (MTDRC), School of MedicineBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran

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