The objective of the present study was assessment of gender differences in hair trace element content in English Thoroughbred horses (North Caucasus, Russia) using ICP-DRC-MS and calculation of the reference values. Trace element content in mane hair of 190 stallions and 94 mares (3–7 years old) bred in North Caucasus (Russia) was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mane hair Co, Cr, Mn, Li, Si, and Sr levels in mares exceeded those in stallions by 77%, 63%, 64%, 42%, 39%, and 64%, respectively. Hair Fe and Si content was nearly twofold higher in female horses as compared to the males. Only hair Zn content was 5% higher in stallions as compared to mares. In addition, mares were characterized by 63%, 65%, 29%, and 40% higher levels of As, Pb, Sn, and Ni levels in hair as compared to the respective values in stallions. In turn, hair Al and Hg were more than twofold higher in mares than in stallions. The reference intervals of mane hair content (μg/g) for Co (0.006–0.143), Cr (0.028–0.551), Cu (4.17–6.84), Fe (10.11–442.2), I (0.026–3.69), Mn (0.551–12.55), Se (0.108–0.714), Zn (97.43–167), Li (0.011–0.709), Ni (0.060–0.589), Si (0.665–29.12), V (0.006–0.584), Al (1.98–168.5), As (0.006–0.127), Cd (0.002–0.033), B (0.494–16.13), Pb (0.018–0.436), Sn (0.002–0.144), Sr (1.0–9.46), and Hg (0.0018–0.017) in the total cohort of horses were estimated using the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines. The reference intervals were also estimated for stallions and mares bred in North Caucasus (Russia) and may be used for interpretation of the results of hair trace element analysis in horses.
Horses Mares Stallions Trace elements Reference range
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The research was conducted with the support of the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-16-01109).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The protocol of the present investigation was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia). All procedures involving animals were performed in agreement with the ethical standards by the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and its later amendments (2013).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Coenen M (2013) Macro and trace elements in equine nutrition. In: Geog JR, Harris PA, Coenen M (eds) Equine applied and clinical nutrition. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 190–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalashnikov V, Zajcev A, Atroshchenko M, Miroshnikov S, Frolov A, Zav’yalov O, Kilinkova L, Kalashnikova T (2018) The content of essential and toxic elements in the hair of the mane of the trotter horses depending on their speed. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:21961–21967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2334-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedrichs KR, Harr KE, Freeman KP, Szladovits B, Walton RM, Barnhart KF, Blanco-Chavez J (2012) ASVCP reference interval guidelines: determination of de novo reference intervals in veterinary species and other related topics. Vet Clin Pathol 41:441–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
USSR State Agriculture Committee (1987) Temporary maximum allowable levels of certain chemical elements and gossypol in feeds for farm animals and feed additives. Gosagroprom USSR, MoscowGoogle Scholar
Malter R, Rendon C, Aalund R (2005) A developmental study of sex differences in hair tissue mineral analysis patterns at ages six, twelve and eighteen. J Orthomol Med 20:245–254Google Scholar
Ali F, Lodhi LA, Qureshi ZI, Ahmad I, Hussain R (2013) Serum mineral profile in various reproductive phases of mares. Pak Vet J 33:296–299Google Scholar
Vivoli G, Fantuzzi G, Bergomi M, Tonelli E, Gatto MR, Zanetti F, Del Dot M (1990) Relationship between zinc in serum and hair and some hormones during sexual maturation in humans. Sci Total Environ 95:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michos C, Kalfakakou V, Karkabounas S, Kiortsis D, Evangelou A (2010) Changes in copper and zinc plasma concentrations during the normal menstrual cycle in women. Gynecol Endocrinol 26:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng G, Wang L, Guo Z, Sun L, Wang L, Wang C, Zuo Z, Qiu H (2015) Association of serum heavy metals and trace element concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population. Biol Trace Elem Res 167:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arredondo M, Núñez H, López G, Pizarro F, Ayala M, Araya M (2010) Influence of estrogens on copper indicators: in vivo and in vitro studies. Biol Trace Elem Res 134:252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabrielsen JS (2017) Iron and testosterone: interplay and clinical implications. Curr Sex Health Rep 9:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang CS, Choi JB, Kim HJ, Park SB (2011) Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissue. Biol Trace Elem Res 144:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeng Q, Zhou B, Feng W, Wang YX, Liu AL, Yue J, Li YF, Lu WQ (2013) Associations of urinary metal concentrations and circulating testosterone in Chinese men. Reprod Toxicol 41:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skalny AV, Kiselev VF (2012) Element status of population of Russia. Part III. Element status of population of North-Western, Southern, and North-Caucasian Federal districts. ELBI-SPb, Saint Petersburg, p 447Google Scholar
Brown RJ, Milton MJ (2005) Analytical techniques for trace element analysis: an overview. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 24:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saitoh K, Sera K, Gotoh T, Nakamura M (2002) Comparison of elemental quantity by PIXE and ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES for NIST standards. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 189:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elzain AH, Ebrahim AM, Eltoum MS (2016) Comparison between XRF, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques applied for analysis of some medicinal plants. J Appl Chem 9:6–12Google Scholar