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Calcium Deficiency in Diet Decreases the Magnesium Content in Bone and Affects Femur Physicochemical Properties in Growing Rats

  • Ezequiel Hernández-BecerraEmail author
  • Daniel Jímenez-Mendoza
  • Nathalia Mutis-Gonzalez
  • Posidia Pineda-Gomez
  • Isela Rojas-Molina
  • Mario E. Rodríguez-García
Article
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Abstract

This study evaluates the effect of three calcium levels in the diet (normal, moderate, and severe calcium depletion) on bone metabolism of male Wistar rats during their growth period. Bone mineral density (BMD) and femur length were determined in vivo during the growth stage using a single X-ray transmission system. The apparent calcium absorption was calculated in the rat adolescent and adulthood stages. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentrations in serum and urine were analyzed. The bones were evaluated postmortem to corroborate in vivo analyses. Microstructural properties of cortical and trabecular tissues of femurs bones were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Bone mineral contents (Mg, Ca, P, and K) were quantified by inductively coupled plasma. Severe calcium depletion in the diets in the development stage affects the bone quality parameters such as bone mineral density and mineral content. Moreover, it was found thinner cortical and trabecular bone areas. Additionally, it was found that severe calcium depletion increased the apparent absorption of calcium as a defense mechanism, but with the decrease of the BMD peak, and the thickness of cortical bone as well as trabecular bone porosity. The severe calcium depletion increased the efficiency of apparent absorption calcium as a defense mechanism, but, even so, decreases the BMD peak as well as the thickness of cortical bone and trabecular bone porosity.

Keywords

Bone mineral density Bone microstructure Bone mineral content Single X-ray system Calcium depletion Trabecular and cortical bone 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Ezequiel Hernández Becerra wishes to thank Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, México) for his Postdoctoral position at CFATA-UNAM-Juriquilla. We want to thank M. en I.Q Alicia del Real for the SEM and Mayté Juárez Meneses (Investigación Aplicada, Centro Universitario de Vinculación-BUAP) for their technical support.

Funding Information

This project was supported by PAPIIT-UNAM project number IN112317.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of Mexican current regulation (NOM-062-ZOO-1999).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Escuela Nacional de Estudios SuperioresUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoQuerétaroMéxico
  2. 2.Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología AvanzadaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoQuerétaroMéxico
  3. 3.Departamento de Ingeniería Física, División de Ciencias e IngenieríasUniversidad de GuanajuatoGuanajuatoMéxico
  4. 4.Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaManizalesColombia
  5. 5.Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversidad de CaldasManizalesColombia
  6. 6.Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad Autónoma de QuerétaroQuerétaroMexico
  7. 7.Departamento de Nanotecnología, Centro de Física Aplica y Tecnología AvanzadaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México campus JuriquillaQuerétaroMéxico

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