The Relationship between High Iodine Consumption and Levels of Autoimmune Thyroiditis-Related Biomarkers in a Chinese Population: a Meta-Analysis
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To comprehensively evaluate the relationship between high iodine concentration and biomarker abnormalities related to autoimmune thyroiditis in a Chinese population. Medline, PubMed, and Embase electronic databases were searched for articles published domestically and internationally on the relationship between high iodine concentrations and thyroid hormone antibodies and thyroid-stimulating hormone in China before March 2019. Articles published in Chinese were searched in the China Biology Medicine (CBM) disc, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). A total of 16 cross-sectional articles were included in this study, including 9061 participants. A meta-analysis was conducted in Stata 14.0. The binary categorical and continuous variables used odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect statistics, respectively. The results showed that high iodine concentrations had a minimal association with the abnormal rates of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) (OR = 1.274, 95% CI (0.957, 1.695), P > 0.05) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) (OR = 1.217, 95% CI (0.911, 1.626), P > 0.05) in the entire population. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the high iodine group was greater than that in the adaptive iodine group (SMD = 0.202, 95% CI (0.096, 0.309), P < 0.05). The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the abnormal TPOAb rate in pregnant women (OR = 1.519, 95% CI (1.007, 2.291), P < 0.05) and children (OR = 3.365, 95% CI (1.966, 5.672), P < 0.05) in the high iodine group was greater than that in the adaptive iodine group, and the abnormal TGAb rate of children in the high iodine group was greater than that in the adaptive iodine group. The TSH levels of lactating women (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI (0.053, 0.427), P < 0.05), pregnant women (SMD = 0.301, 95% CI (0.176, 0.426), P < 0.05), and children (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI(0.096, 0.309), P < 0.05) in the high iodine group were higher than those in the adaptive iodine group. Egger’s and Begg’s tests showed no significant (P > 0.1) publication bias. High iodine can increase the risk of abnormal levels of TPOAb, TGAb, and TSH related to autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant women, lactating women, and children in China.
KeywordsIodine excess High iodine Thyroid peroxidase antibody Thyroglobulin antibody Thyroid-stimulating hormone Meta-analysis
Siyuan Wan and Baiming Jin were the principal investigators of this paper. Siyuan Wan, Baiming Jin, and Hongmei Shen developed the hypothesis and study design and supervised this study. All authors contributed to the study concept and design, analysis, and interpretation of data and drafted or critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript for submission.
This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872561).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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