Comparing the Influence of High Doses of Different Zinc Salts on Oxidative Stress and Energy Depletion in IPEC-J2 Cells

  • Lingjun Chen
  • Xiaonan Yu
  • Haoxuan Ding
  • Yang Zhao
  • Caihong Hu
  • Jie FengEmail author


The current study aimed to investigate the influence of four supplemental zinc salts (chelated: Zn glycine; non-chelated: Zn sulfate, Zn citrate, Zn gluconate) among different zinc concentrations (30–300 μM) on cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and energy depletion in intestinal porcine jejunum epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Different zinc salts affected cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was mainly dependent on the uptake of intracellular Zn2+. Intracellular Zn2+ of Zn sulfate has taken up almost twice as high as Zn glycine when cells were loaded with 100–200 μM zinc. After loading cells with 300 μM zinc, Zn glycine and Zn sulfate had a similar trend in accumulation of Zn2+. When the intracellular Zn2+ overloads, cells will gradually be damaged and subsequently die bearing biochemical features of necrosis or late apoptosis. Meanwhile, obviously, increased levels of intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS, MDA, and NO and decreased levels of GSH were observed. Excessive intracellular Zn2+ significantly decreased mitochondria membrane potential accompanied by an obvious loss of ATP and NAD+ levels. Overall, exposure to high doses of zinc salts caused cell damage, which was mainly dependent on the uptake of Zn2+. Zinc overload induced oxidative stress and energy depletion in IPEC-J2 cells, and the cell damage with non-chelated zinc addition was more serious than Zn glycine.


Zinc salts Biosafety Oxidative stress Energy depletion IPEC-J2 cells 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Key Technologies R & D Program of China (2016YFD0501201), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31972998) and Zhejiang Provincial Key Research and Development Program (2019C02051).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Molecular Animal Nutrition, Ministry of Education, College of Animal SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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