Applicability of Low-Cost Binders for the Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Urinary Stones Using EDXRF Based on Fundamental Parameter Approach

  • Abdallah A. ShaltoutEmail author
  • Maram M. Dabi
  • Mohamed M. Ibrahim
  • Ahmed S. Al-Ghamdi
  • Essam Elnagar


The pressed powder sample is a common method for elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence analysis whereas suitable light hydrocarbon materials should be added to the sample as a binder. The present study demonstrates the applicability of using different commercial binders for elemental analysis of urinary stone samples. In order to confirm the obtained results, a comparison with pure chemical grade binders was presented. Different commercial and pure binders were tested for quantitative elemental analysis of urinary stones, namely, cellulose, starch, wax, and urea. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used for elemental analysis. Differential thermal analysis was used to estimate the loss on ignition (LOI) in the urinary stone samples. The signal to background ratios (I/IB) of the different detected elements in the commercial and pure binders were calculated, compared, and studied at eight different photon energies starting from 2.5 up to 37 keV. Standard-less quantitative analysis method based on the fundamental parameter approach was applied for elemental analysis of selected urinary stones. The commercial and low-cost binders could be an excellent alternative binder for urinary stone analysis using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The commercial binders could provide an advantage as pure chemical grade binders or even better especially at photon energy higher than 10 keV. The best commercial binder candidate was found to be the wax. The quantitative analysis results using commercial and pure chemical grade binders give good agreement results, which indicate the applicability of commercial binders for quantitative elemental analysis of urinary stones in the form of pressed powder samples.


Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Binders Pressed powder sample Background ratios (I/IBUrinary stone samples 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the volunteers who participated in this research.

Authors’ Contribution

Abdallah A. Shaltout, Maram M. Dabi, Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Ahmed S. Al-Ghamdi, and Essam El-Naggar certify that they have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content, including participation in the concept, design, analysis, writing, or revision of the manuscript. Furthermore, each author certifies that this material or similar material has not been and will not be submitted to or published in any other publication.


This study has no any financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spectroscopy Department, Physics DivisionNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Physics Department, Faculty of scienceTaif UniversityTaifKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceKafrelsheikh UniversityKafrelsheikhEgypt
  4. 4.Chemistry Department, Faculty of scienceTaif UniversityTaifKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Urology DepartmentKing Abdulaziz Specialist HospitalTaifKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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