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Protective Effect of Purple Tomato Anthocyanidin on Chromium(VI)-Induced Autophagy in LMH Cells by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress


This study aimed to investigate the role of purple tomato anthocyanin (PTA) in autophagy induced by chromium(VI) in a chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (LMH cells). LMH cells were exposed to Cr(VI), PTA, and Cr(VI) + PTA. The changes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, related proteins, and COX-2 were detected. Results showed that the cell viability was reduced after Cr(VI) treatment, and the decrease was also restrained by 3-MA or PTA. Levels of ER stress-related proteins (GRP78/Bip and PERK) and COX-2 increased after Cr(VI) treatment, which resulted in an increase in autophagy-related proteins (Beclin1 and LC3-II), inhibition of autophagy pathway protein mTOR, and degradation of autophagy-related protein p62, leading to excessive autophagy and cell damage. Meanwhile, the changes of these indicators induced by Cr(VI) were alleviated by PTA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Cr(VI) can induce excessive autophagy in LMH cells, while PTA can ameliorate Cr(VI)-induced autophagy by inhibiting ER stress.

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The project was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 31872535), National Key R&D Program (2016YFD0501208), Shandong Natural Science Foundation of China (ZR2018MC027, ZR2016CQ29), and Funds of Shandong “Double Tops” Program. PTA was donated by Prof. Ding Xinhua of Shandong Agricultural University.

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Correspondence to Yongxia Liu or Jianzhu Liu.

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Liu, K., Chen, P., Lu, J. et al. Protective Effect of Purple Tomato Anthocyanidin on Chromium(VI)-Induced Autophagy in LMH Cells by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 194, 570–580 (2020).

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  • Chromium (VI)
  • Anthocyanin
  • Autophagy
  • ER stress
  • LMH cells