The Interaction Between Concentration of Heavy Metal-Trace Elements and Non-Smoking Status of Adolescents in Sinop (Turkey)

  • Huriye Demet Cabar
  • Melek Ersoy Karaçuha
  • Muhitdin YilmazEmail author


This study was experimentally conducted between 2017 and 2018 in order to determine the interactions of heavy metals and non-smoking status of adolescents in Sinop Province (Turkey). In this regard, the students of Sarı Saltuk Anatolian High School students in Sinop Province were examined. The research data was obtained using a questionnaire, including questions about sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status of the adolescences. Afterwards, 0.5 g of hair samples from 40 female students who accepted to participate to the research was collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MSMS), and the obtained data were evaluated using SPSS (version 22.0) statistical program. At the end of the study, the Mg, Cr, Co, and Zn elements of the non-smoking girls were found to be slightly higher than the normal range of hair, and the high concentration of Cd element was related to the contamination by passive smoking. Besides, it was determined that the elements which showed the highest positive correlation in hair samples taken from the children of smokers were Ca/Cd, Al/Fe, Mg/Cr, Na/Fe, Al/Cd, and Al/Na, respectively. As the nursing approach, it is thought that trainings aiming to prevent smoking and quitting smoking are extremely important.


Heavy metals Adolescent Smoking Nursing approach Sinop 



We would like to thank Sinop Provincial Directorate of National Education and the valuable managers, teachers, and students of Sarı Saltuk Anatolian High School for their support in the realization of this study.

Funding Information

This study was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Sinop University. Project Number: SYO-1901-17-24.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health, Department of NursingSinop UniversitySinopTurkey
  2. 2.School of Health, Department of Occupational Health and SafetySinop UniversitySinopTurkey
  3. 3.Vocational High School of Health Services, Department of Environmental HealthSinop UniversitySinopTurkey

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