The Interaction Between Concentration of Heavy Metal-Trace Elements and Non-Smoking Status of Adolescents in Sinop (Turkey)
- 11 Downloads
This study was experimentally conducted between 2017 and 2018 in order to determine the interactions of heavy metals and non-smoking status of adolescents in Sinop Province (Turkey). In this regard, the students of Sarı Saltuk Anatolian High School students in Sinop Province were examined. The research data was obtained using a questionnaire, including questions about sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status of the adolescences. Afterwards, 0.5 g of hair samples from 40 female students who accepted to participate to the research was collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MSMS), and the obtained data were evaluated using SPSS (version 22.0) statistical program. At the end of the study, the Mg, Cr, Co, and Zn elements of the non-smoking girls were found to be slightly higher than the normal range of hair, and the high concentration of Cd element was related to the contamination by passive smoking. Besides, it was determined that the elements which showed the highest positive correlation in hair samples taken from the children of smokers were Ca/Cd, Al/Fe, Mg/Cr, Na/Fe, Al/Cd, and Al/Na, respectively. As the nursing approach, it is thought that trainings aiming to prevent smoking and quitting smoking are extremely important.
KeywordsHeavy metals Adolescent Smoking Nursing approach Sinop
We would like to thank Sinop Provincial Directorate of National Education and the valuable managers, teachers, and students of Sarı Saltuk Anatolian High School for their support in the realization of this study.
This study was supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Sinop University. Project Number: SYO-1901-17-24.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Cabar HD, Oruç S, Gümüş E (2017) Heavy metal exposure in children. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus (ASI) 3(6):147–153 ISSN 2410-9738,2519-1896Google Scholar
- 2.Rodgman A, Perfetti TA (2009) The chemical components of tobacco and tobacco smoke. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 4.Chiba M, Masironi R (1992) Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoking. Bull World Health Organ 70:262–269Google Scholar
- 5.Ferrante G, Simoni M, Cibella F et al (2013) Thirdhand smoke exposure and health hazards in children. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 79:38–43Google Scholar
- 7.Geiss O, Kotzias D (2007) Tobacco, cigarettes and cigarette smoke. An overview. European Commission, Directorate-General, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, pp. 27–29.Google Scholar
- 13.Lugon-Moulin N, Zhang M, Gadani F et al (2004) Critical review of the science and options for reducing cadmium in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and other plants. Adv Agron:111–180Google Scholar
- 14.Sebiawu GE, Mensah NJ, Ayiah-Mensah F (2014) Analysis of heavy metals content of tobacco and cigarettes sold in Wa municipality of upper West region. Chem Process Eng Res 25:24–34Google Scholar
- 22.Barlow PJ, Sidani SA, Lyons M (1985) Trace elements in hair in the UK Results and interpretation in the preconception situation. Sci Total Environ 42:121–131Google Scholar
- 23.Wilhelm M, Lombeck I, Nesorge FK (1994) Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in hair and toenail of young children and family members: a follow-up study. Sci Total Environ 35:174–185Google Scholar
- 24.Srogi K (2004) Heavy metals in human hair samples from Silesia Province: the influence of sex, age and smoking habit. Probl. Forensic Sci LX: 7–27.Google Scholar
- 25.Srogi K (2006) Hair analysis for monitoring environmental pollution and the resulting human exposure to trace metals: an overview. Environ Risque Santé 5:391–405Google Scholar
- 26.Partsinevelou AS, Evrenoglou L (2016) Heavy metal contamination in surface water and impacts in public health. The case of Kifissos River, Athens, Greece. International Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) 10:213–216Google Scholar
- 28.Chojnacka K, Mikulewicz M (2012) Hair mineral analysis in the assessment of human exposure to metals, Handbook of hair in health and disease, 279, 292.Google Scholar
- 30.Katz SA, Chatt A (1998) Hair analysis in the biomedical and environmental sciences. VCH Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 31.Kronstrand R, Förstberg-Peterson S, Kagedal B, Ahlner J, Larson G (1999) Codeine concentration in hair after oral administration is dependent on melanin content. Clin Chem 45:1485–1494Google Scholar
- 36.Ghoochani M, Dehghani MH, Rastkari N, Nodehi RN, Yunesian M, Mesdaghinia A, Houshiarrad A, Saraei M (2018) Association among sources exposure of cadmium in the adult non-smoking general population of Tehran. Biol Trace Elem Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1590-9
- 38.Varhan Oral E (2016) Determination of the trace element levels in hair of smokers and non-smokers by ICP-MS. JOTCSA 3(3):367–380Google Scholar
- 39.Baran A, Wieczorek J (2013) Concentrations of heavy metals in hair as indicators of environmental pollution, E3S Web of Conferences, 1, 21005.Google Scholar
- 42.Jarup L, Berglund M, Elinder CG, Nordberg G, Vahter M (1998) Health effects of cadmium exposure-a review of the literature and a risk estimate. Scand J Work Environ Health 24, Suppl:1:1–1:151Google Scholar
- 47.Birol L (2013) Nursing period-systematic approach in nursing care, Berke Ofset Printing, 10th Edition.Google Scholar
- 48.Conk Z, Başbakkal Z, Yardımcı F (2018) An overview of child health. In: Conk Z, Başbakkal Z, Bal Yılmaz H, Bolışık B (eds) Pediatric Nursing, 2nd edition. Academician Bookstore, Ankara, pp 1–52Google Scholar
- 49.Arıkan D, Çelebioğlu A, Güdücü Tüfekçi F (2018) Growth and development in childhood periods. In: Conk Z, Başbakkal Z, Bal Yılamz H, Bolışık B (eds) Pediatric Nursing, 2nd edition. Academician Bookstore, Ankara, pp 53–99 ISBN: 978-605-81550-2-2Google Scholar