Occupational heavy metal exposures and kidney dysfunction

  • Tomoyuki KawadaEmail author


Heavy metal exposure Metalloid arsenicals Urinary excretion Cadmium Lead Cystatin C Workers Risk assessment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.


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    Bernard A, Roels H, Thielemans N, Van Lierde M, Lauwerys R (1992) Assessment of the causality of the cadmium-protein relationships in the urine of the general population with reference to the Cadmibel study. IARC Sci Publ 118:341–346Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hygiene and Public HealthNippon Medical SchoolTokyoJapan

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