Effect of Urinary Iodine Concentration in Pregnant and Lactating Women, and in Their Infants Residing in Areas with Excessive Iodine in Drinking Water in Shanxi Province, China

  • Lixiang Liu
  • Jiwei Liu
  • Dandan Wang
  • Hongmei ShenEmail author
  • Qingzhen Jia


It is uncertain how many factors affect urinary iodine concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of consumption of drinking water with high iodine concentration on urinary iodine concentration in pregnant and lactating women, and infants. We included 218 lactating women and their infants and 142 pregnant women in areas with suitable and high water iodine content. Urine, serum, and water iodine concentration were assessed. Breastfeeding women living in areas with high water iodine content had a greater likelihood of iodine sufficiency or iodine excess [odds ratio (P = 0.044, P < 0.001)] compared with women living in areas with suitable water iodine content. Older women were less likely to have higher urinary iodine concentration (P = 0.041). Pregnant women who consumed milk > 4 times weekly during pregnancy were more likely to be iodine sufficient (P = 0.028). Living in areas with high water iodine content for > 5 years is a risk factor for iodine excess (P < 0.001, P = 0.007). There is a probability of higher urinary iodine concentration in pregnant and lactating women and their infants living in areas with high water iodine content. Age had an effect on iodine excess in lactating women. Consumption of milk > 4 times a week during pregnancy and living in an area with high iodine water content for > 5 years were associated with iodine sufficiency and iodine excess in pregnant women.


Urinary iodine Iodine in water supply Infants Pregnant women Lactating women 



We thank the staff at municipal and county level CDC in Shanxi Province for collecting epidemiological data and urine samples and the contributions and support from all participants.

Authors’ Contributions

Hongmei Shen and Lixiang Liu designed the research. Hongmei Shen, Lixiang Liu, Qingzhen Jia, and Dandan Wang conducted the research. Jiwei Liu analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Hongmei Shen had primary responsibility for the final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81273012).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All the procedures used in this experiment were reviewed and approved by the biomedical research ethics committee of Harbin Medical University. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lixiang Liu
    • 1
  • Jiwei Liu
    • 1
  • Dandan Wang
    • 2
  • Hongmei Shen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qingzhen Jia
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and PreventionHarbin Medical UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Public Health and Preventive MedicineChang Zhi Medical collegeChang ZhiChina
  3. 3.Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Treatment of Shanxi ProvinceLinfenChina

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