Concentrations and Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Cereals, Fruits, and Vegetables of Bangladesh

  • M. Rahman
  • M. A. IslamEmail author


This study was conducted to determine concentrations of five toxic trace elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb) in cereals, fruits, and vegetables of Bangladesh. The range of mass fractions (mg/kg) of Cr, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb in the foodstuffs was 0.090–2.5, 0.03–2.6, 0.13–1.7, 0.010–0.74, and 0.37–2.2, respectively. This study indicates that concentration of Cr, and Pb in fruits; As, Cd, and Pb in vegetables were higher than WHO/FAO maximum allowable concentration levels. The hazard index (HI) values for adults and children of the toxic elements in studied cereals, fruits and vegetables were higher than 1.0, suggesting non-carcinogenic adverse health hazard to the consumers. The estimated target carcinogenic risk (TCR) values were greater than the threshold level of 1.0 × 10−4 for Cr and Cd in cereals and vegetables indicate potential cancer risk to both adults and children for consumption of the foodstuffs. The present study reveals that trace elements contamination in foodstuffs is a serious issue of concern in Bangladesh.


Trace elements Foodstuffs Dietary intake Health risks Atomic absorption spectrometry 



The authors thank the staffs of Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Dhaka, Bangladesh, for providing laboratory facilities for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Declaration of Interest

There are no interests to declare. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Science & EngineeringMilitary Institute of Science and TechnologyDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Nuclear Science & TechnologyAtomic Energy Research EstablishmentDhakaBangladesh

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