Association Among Sources Exposure of Cadmium in the Adult Non-smoking General Population of Tehran

  • Mahboobeh Ghoochani
  • Mohammad Hadi DehghaniEmail author
  • Noushin RastkariEmail author
  • Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi
  • Masud Yunesian
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
  • Anahita Houshiarrad
  • Maryam Saraei


Acute and chronic exposure to cadmium can cause numerous health effects including poisoning, as well as, bone, liver, and kidney diseases. Cadmium competes with iron absorption in blood and can induce anemia. Cadmium body burden can be measured through urine and blood samples. Urine reflects chronic and blood indicates recent and cumulative exposures to cadmium. Dietary is considered as the main source of exposure to cadmium in non-smoking general population. The study was conducted to determine cadmium level in blood, urine, and in diet of 120 non-smoking adults in Tehran. Dietary components and consumption pattern of participants estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Next, the correlation investigated between them. Moreover, serum ferritin measured as a marker of iron storage in blood to determine its association with cadmium. The prediction of cadmium fate in the body is determined by toxicokinetic models. This study tried to evaluate one of these models’ validity which is developed to predict urinary cadmium from dietary. Afterwards, the predicted urinary compared with the measured urinary cadmium. The correlation coefficient between dietary and blood cadmium equaled 0.66 which was statically significant, but the correlation between dietary and urinary cadmium was minimal and not statically significant (p > 0.05). An inverse and negative correlation was found between serum ferritin and blood cadmium. The mean predicted urinary cadmium calculated by the model was 2.5-fold higher than the measured value in the total population. Results of the present study revealed that blood cadmium reflected mainly acute exposure. There was no correlation between chronic and acute exposures to cadmium. The low serum ferritin level increased cadmium amount in blood. Moreover, the mean predicted urinary cadmium by the model was greater than the measured value. It can because of characteristics of populations and type of dietary exposure. Thus, it is suggested that the model coefficients are determined in each society based on their characteristics.


Cadmium Exposure Dietary Toxicokinetic model Tehran 



The authors are grateful to the staff at the laboratory of the Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. We also thank the staff at the Occupational Medicine Clinic and the laboratory of Baharloo Hospital.

Funding Sources

This study was conducted as part of the Ph.D. dissertation of the first author, supported by the Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, under grant number 96-02-46-34989.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1397.280).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahboobeh Ghoochani
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Noushin Rastkari
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 1
    • 4
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
    • 5
  • Anahita Houshiarrad
    • 6
  • Maryam Saraei
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.National Nutrition and Food Technology Research InstituteShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Center for research on occupational diseaseTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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