Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 189, Issue 2, pp 567–573 | Cite as

Levels of Some Heavy Metals and Health Risks Assessment of Three Different Species of Catfishes in Ikoli Creek, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

  • Victor IghariemuEmail author
  • Donatus C. Belonwu
  • Matthew O. Wegwu


Heavy metals are the most common form of aquatic pollutants and are of great health risk to consumers of contaminated sea food. This study investigated the level of heavy metals in three species of catfishes Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (marine catfish), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish), and Schilbe mystus (silver catfish) in Ikoli Creek, Bayelsa State. The potential human health risks to consumers in the study area were investigated. The heavy metal concentration in the three species of catfishes was found in the following order: Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cd. The levels were below WHO/FAO guideline, except for Fe having the highest value of 88.23 ± 0.09 mg/kg in C. gariepinus, 85.54 ± 0.26 mg/kg in S. mystus, and 66.36 ± 0.10 mg/kg in C. nigrodigitatus, which were above the acceptable regulatory limits in the fishes. The Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) values of all the metals were lower than the USEPA-recommended limits except for Cd in C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, and S. mystus. The Target Hazard Quotient for C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, and S. mystus was > 1. Life Cancer Risk from the consumption of Cr in C. nigrodigitatus and S. mystus was 1.65E−03 and 8.11E−04, indicating a probable risk of one chance of cancer for the populace that consumed fishes obtained from Ikoli creek. Heavy metal contamination of fishes caught in Ikoli creek may pose a health risk to the local populace via consumption of fishes.


Atomic absorption spectrometry Heavy metals Fish Health risk assessment 



We wish to thank Dr. Kpobari W. Nkpaa, Environmental Toxicology Units, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, for advising and guiding us on the sampling collection, human health risk assessment protocol, and manuscript editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical approval was given by the Ethical Committee of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, before the start of the research work.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Ighariemu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Donatus C. Belonwu
    • 1
  • Matthew O. Wegwu
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Port HarcourtChoba Rivers StateNigeria

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