Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 187, Issue 2, pp 602–610 | Cite as

Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Atmospheric Dry Deposition, a Case Study: Kermanshah, Iran

  • Soheil SobhanardakaniEmail author


The present study was intended to investigate the ecological and human health risk of cobalt, nickel, and vanadium in the atmospheric dry deposition of the Kermanshah city, Iran, in 2015. Totally 54 samples of atmospheric dry deposition were collected from the three regions of the city with different traffic intensity, and after acid digestion of the samples with ultrapure concentrated HNO3, the total contents of the metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Also, all statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The atmospheric dry deposition element contents increase according to the following descending order for both autumn seasons: Ni > Co > V. The results of potential ecological risk analysis demonstrated that metals in the samples are in low ecological risk levels, whereas the results of human health risk assessment showed that ingestion is the main exposure pathway of heavy metals in the dust to the local residents compared with inhalation and dermal pathways. Also, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% UCL) of hazard indices for non-carcinogenic risks of all analyzed metals in the dust samples was within the safe level for both children and adults. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk levels of Co and Ni were all lower than the acceptable range (10−6–10−4) to local citizens. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of understanding the heavy metal content of atmospheric dry deposition and regular monitoring of air pollution.


Heavy metals Potential ecological risk Health risk assessment Atmospheric dry deposition Iran 



The author is grateful to the Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University for providing facilities to conduct and complete this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Experimental Ethics Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human including children and adults subjects.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of the Environment, College of Basic Sciences, Hamedan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityHamedanIran

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