Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 187, Issue 1, pp 230–242 | Cite as

Effects of Humic Acids in Chronic Lead Poisoning

  • Janka VaškováEmail author
  • Klára Krempaská
  • Daniel Žatko
  • Pavol Mudroň
  • Gabriela Glinská
  • Ladislav Vaško
Article
  • 94 Downloads

Abstract

Chronic exposure to lead causes disruption to energy production mechanisms and tissue damage, in particular through its binding to thiol groups and competition for zinc binding sites. We investigated the possibility of preventing the consequences of chronic lead poisoning by administration of three different doses of humic acids (HAs) into feed with the aim of establishing an effective HA dose. During the 10-week experiment, a sub-lethal dose of lead acetate was given to rats during the first 5 weeks, with continuous administration of HA over 10 weeks. Measurements were taken to determine the content of the metals Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn; the metalloid Se; and selected antioxidant markers in the heart, liver, kidney and plasma after the first, fifth and tenth weeks of experiment. The administration of lead and HAs clearly affects the redistribution of the elements and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. This fact was particularly highlighted in the lead-only group as, within the experiment, significantly higher Pb concentrations were found only in the plasma of this group. However, in the group with 1% HA administered with lead, we observed a rise in Zn concentrations in the organs and the deposition of Fe into the liver. Decreased glutathione reductase activity in the plasma and balanced reduced glutathione concentrations indicated sufficient efficiency of redox reactions. SOD activities were among those affected most strongly, with only the 1% HA group showing no effect on heavy metal redistribution as a result of HA administration.

Keywords

Humic acids Lead Lead intoxication Antioxidant enzymes Oxidative stress Metal cofactors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by VEGA 1/1236/12 and 1/0782/15.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Morais S, Costa FG, Pereira ML (2012) Heavy metals and human health. In: Oosthuizen J (ed) Environmental health—emerging issues and practice. InTech.  https://doi.org/10.5772/29869. https://www.intechopen.com/books/environmental-health-emerging-issues-and-practice/heavy-metals-and-human-health
  2. 2.
    Assi MA, Hezmee MNM, Haron AW, Sabri MYM, Rajion MA (2016) The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health. Vet World 9:660–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Lead toxicity in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rabinowitz MB, Wetherill GW, Kopple JD (1976) Kinetic analysis of lead metabolism in healthy humans. J Clin Invest 58:260 270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chamberlain AC, Heard MJ, Little P, Newton D, Wells AC, Wiffen RD (1978) Investigations into lead from motor vehicles, Rep. AERE-R9198. Harwell, U.K.: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. https://hero.epa.gov/hero/index.cfm/reference/details/reference_id/54645
  7. 7.
    Gulson BL, Mizon KJ, Korsch MJ, Howarth D, Phillips A, Hall (1996) Impact on blood lead in children and adults following relocation from their source of exposure and contribution of skeletal tissue to blood lead. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56:543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith D, Hernandez-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM, Mercado A, Hu H (2002) Contribution of tissue lead to blood lead in adult female subjects based on stable lead isotope. The relationship between lead in plasma and whole blood in women. Environ Health Perspect 110:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basha MR, Wei W, Brydie M, Razmiafshari M, Zawia NH (2003) Lead-induced developmental perturbations in hippocampal Sp1 DNA-binding are prevented by zinc supplementation: in vivo evidence for Pb and Zn competition. Int J Dev Neurosci 21:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lustberg M, Silbergeld E (2002) Blood lead levels and mortality. Arch Intern Med 162:2443–2449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vaziri ND, Sica DA (2004) Lead-induced hypertension: role of oxidative stress. Curr Hyper Rep J 6:314–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weaver VM, Jaar BG, Schwartz BS, Todd AC, Ahn KD, Lee SS, Wen J, Parsons PJ, Lee BK (2005) Associations among lead dose biomarkers, uric acid, and renal function in Korean lead workers. Environ Health Perspect 113:36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rice DC (1992) Behavioral impairment produced by developmental lead exposure: evidence from primate research. Human lead exposure. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 138–152Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sharma S, Singh B (2014) Effects of acute and chronic lead exposure on kidney lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in BALB-C mice (Mus musculus). Int J Sci Res 3:1564–1566Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steenland K, Boffetta P (2000) Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now? Am J Ind Med 38:295–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pinto E, Sigaud-kutner TC, Leitão MA, Okamoto OK, Morse D, Colepicolo P (2003) Heavy metal-induced oxidative stress in algae. J Phycol 39:1008–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mateo R, Beyer WN, Spann JW, Hoffman DJ, Ramis A (2003) Relationship between oxidative stress, pathology, and behavioral signs of lead poisoning in mallards. J Toxicol Environ Health A 66:1371–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iskender H, Hayirli A, Odabasoglu F, Atalay F, Ozcelik E (2014) Effect of humic acid on lead poisoning on liver tissue in chickens. Cell Membr Free Radic Res 6:392–393Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vašková J, Velika B, Pilátová M, Kron I, Vaško L (2011) Effects of humic acaids in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 47:376–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zralý Z, Písaříkova B, Trčkova M, Navrátilová M (2008) Effect of humic acids on lead accumulation in chicken organs and muscles. Acta Vet Brno 77:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    EMEA (1999) Humic acids and their sodium salts, summary report. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Maximum_Residue_Limits_-_Report/2009/11/WC500014416.pdf
  22. 22.
    Žatko D, Vaškova J, Vaško L, Patlevič P (2014) The effect of humic acid on the content of trace element in mitochondria. Am J Anim Vet Sci 9:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Floreani M, Petrone M, Debetto P, Palatini P (1997) A comparison between different methods for the determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in mammalian tissues. Free Radic Res 26:449–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klučáková M (2012) Complexation of copper(II) with humic acids studied by ultrasound spectrometry. Org Chem Int 2012:206025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kostić IS, Andelković TD, Nikolić RS, Cvetković TP, Pavlović DD, ALj B (2013) Comparative study of binding strengths of heavy metals with humic acid. Hem Ind 67:773–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ipek H, Avci M, Iriadam M, Kaplan O, Denek N (2008) Effects of humic acid on some hematological parameters, total antioxidant capacity and laying performance in Japanese quails. Arch Geflügelk 72:56–60Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trckova M, Lorencova A, Babak V, Neca J, Ciganek M (2017) Effects of sodium humate and zinc oxide used in prophylaxis of post-weaning diarrhoea on the health, oxidative stress status and fatty acid profile in weaned piglets. Vet Med 62:16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weber TE, van Sambeek DM, Gabler NK, Kerr BJ, Moreland S, Johal S, Edmonds MS (2014) Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs. J Anim Sci 92:4172–4179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kloecking R, Helbig B (2005) Medical aspects and applications of humic substances. In: Steinbuechel A, Marchessault RH (eds) Biopolymers for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    van Rensburg CE (2015) The antiinflammatory properties of humic substances: a mini review. Phytother Res 29:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Janečková B, Člupková M, Kalová H, Vlachová V, Langhans J, Verner M, Kostka V, Petr P (2015) A casuistic study about behaviour of humic substances in a patient’s exposure to whole body bath. Acta Salus 3:75–82Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mézes M, Erdélyi M, Balogh K (2012) Deposition of organic trace metal complexes as feed additives in farm animals. Eur Chem Bull 1:410–413Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Herzig I, Navrátilova M, Totušek J, Suchý P, Večerek V, Bláhová J, Zralý Z (2009) The effect of humic acid on zinc accumulation in chicken broiler tissues. Czech J Anim Sci 54:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Livens FR (1991) Chemical reactions of metals with humic material. Environ Pollut 70:183–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shoba VN, Chudnenko KV (2014) Ion exchange properties of humus acids. Eurasian Soil Sci 47:761–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Christl I, Milne CJ, Kinniburgh DG, Kretzschmar R (2001) Relating ion binding by fulvic and humic acids to chemical composition and molecular size. 2. Metal binding. Environ Sci Technol 35:2512–2517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zralý Z, Písaříková B (2010) Effect of sodium Humate on the content of trace elements in organs of weaned piglets. Acta Vet Brno 79:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Creech BL, Spears JW, Flowers WL, Hill GM, Lloyd KE, Armstrong TA, Engle TE (2004) Effect of dietary trace mineral concentration and source (inorganic vs. chelated) on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion in pigs from weaning through finishing. J Anim Sci 82:2140–2147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Miśta D, Rząsa A, Wincewicz E, Zawadzki W, Dobrzański Z, Szmańko T, Gelles A (2012) The effect of humic-fatty acid preparation on selected haematological and biochemical serum parameters of growing rabbits. Pol J Vet Sci 15:395–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Szabó J, Vucskits AV, Berta E, Andrásofszky E, Bersényi A, Hullár I (2017) Effect of fulvic and humic acids on iron and manganese homeostasis in rats. Acta Vet Hung 65:66–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reid SD, Blake AJ, Wilson C, Love JB (2006) Syntheses and strutres of dinuclear double strand helicates of divalent manganese iron, cobalt and zinc. Inorg Chem 45:636–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roney N, Colman J (2004) Interaction profile for lead, manganese, zinc, and copper. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 18:231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Church HJ, Day JP, Braithwaite RA, Brown SS (1993) Binding of lead to a metallothionein-like protein in human erythrocytes. J Inorg Biochem 49:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Li X, Xing M, Chen M, Zhao J, Fan R, Zhao X, Cao C, Yang J, Zhang Z, Xu S (2017) Effects of selenium-lead interaction on the gene expression of inflammatory factors and selenoproteins in chicken neutrophils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 139:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Oster O, Schmiedel G, Prellwitz W (1988) The organ distribution of selenium in German adults. Biol Trace Elem Res 15:23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anderson ER, Shah YM (2013) Iron homeostasis in the liver. Compr Physiol 3:315–330PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Islam KMS, Schuhmacher A, Gropp JM (2005) Humic acid substances in animal agriculture. Pak J Nutr 4:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Siscar R, Koenig S, Torreblanca A, Solé M (2014) The role of metallothionein and selenium in metal detoxification in the liver of deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean Sea. Sci Total Environ 466-467:898–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lidsky TI, Schneider JS (2003) Lead neurotoxicity in children: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Brain 126:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A (2012) Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol 5:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wysocki R, Tamás MJ (2010) How Saccharomyces cerevisiae copes with toxic metals and metalloids. FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:925–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mocchegiani E, Malavolta M, Muti E, Costarelli L, Cipriano C, Piacenza F, Tesei S, Giacconi R, Lattanzio F (2008) Zinc, metallothioneins and longevity: interrelationships with niacin and selenium. Curr Pharm Des 14:2719–2732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jiang Y, Zheng WW (2005) Cardiovascular toxicities upon manganese exposure. Cardiovasc Toxicol 5:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicinePavol Jozef Šafárik University in KošiceKošiceSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Clinic for RuminantsUniversity of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovak Republic

Personalised recommendations