Smoking is a significant risk factor in fatal pathologies including cardio-cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. Aluminum (Al) is a toxic element without known biological function, but with recognized toxic effects. Manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) are essential trace elements involved in cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. Al, Mn, and Se carry out their metabolic activities via blood flow and tissue oxygenation. The structure and number of red blood cells (RBC) play important role in tissue oxygenation throughout blood flow. Increased hematocrit (Hct) as a result of probable hypoxia induces disturbed blood flow, RBC aggregation (RBC Agg), RBC deformability index (Tk), and oxygen delivery index (ODI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of altered Al, Mn, and Se levels on number, structure, and function of RBCs (Hct, blood and plasma viscosity (BV and PV, respectively), RBC Agg, Tk, ODI) in smokers without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a study group (n = 128) categorized as ex-smokers (ES), smokers (S), and healthy controls (HC). Elements were analyzed in serum using ICP-OES. BV and PV were measured via Brookfield and Harkness viscometers at 37 °C, respectively. Smokers had statistically higher serum Al and Mn levels, BV, RBC, Hgb, Hct, PV, fibrinogen, RBC Agg, Tk45, and pulmonary blood flow rate, but lower serum Se levels and ODI45 values versus HC. In conclusion, increased Al, Mn, and hemorheological parameters and decreased Se and ODI45 might result from inflammatory response in defense mechanism in smokers without diagnosis of COPD. Our results point out that serum Al, Mn, and Se with hemorheological parameters may be beneficial markers of tissue oxygenation and defense mechanism before the clinic onset of COPD in smokers.
Aluminum Manganese Selenium Hemorheological parameters Smoking Respiratory function
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The present work was supported by the Research Fund of Istanbul University (identification number: 15364). This study was partly presented at 6th World Congress of Oxidative Stress, Calcium Signaling and TRP Channel as an oral presentation - Journal of Cellular Neuroscience and Oxidative Stress, 6th World Congress of Oxidative Stress, Calcium Signaling and TRP Channels, Isparta, Turkey, 24–27 May 2016, Oral Presentations (Abstract Book; OP-3, pp. 48).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was planned under the guidance and approval of the Ethical Committee at Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty of Istanbul University. The study was performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, and written informed consent was obtained from all individuals prior to their admitting in the study.
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