NaF Reduces KLK4 Gene Expression by Decreasing Foxo1 in LS8 Cells
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Decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of Forkhead box o1 (Foxo1) in ameloblasts were observed both in vivo and in vitro when treated by fluoride. The present study aims to investigate the possible relationship between Foxo1 and enamel matrix proteinases, matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20), and kallikrein 4 (KLK4), in NaF-treated ameloblasts. Ameloblast-like cells (LS8 cells) were exposed to NaF at selected concentration (0/2 mM) for 24 h. Gene overexpression and silencing experiments were used to up- and down-regulate Foxo1 expression. The expression levels of Foxo1, MMP20, and KLK4 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to evaluate the regulation of Foxo1 on the transcriptional activity of KLK4 promoter. The results showed that KLK4 expression was decreased in LS8 cells treated by NaF, while MMP20 expression was not changed. Foxo1 activation led to significantly up-regulation of KLK4 in LS8 cells under NaF condition. Knockout of Foxo1 markedly decreased klk4 expression in mRNA level, and intensified inhibition occurred in LS8 cells when combined with NaF treatment. However, the variation trend of MMP20 was not clear. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed that Foxo1 activation enhanced the transcriptional activity of KLK4 promoter. These findings suggest that the decrease of Foxo1 expression induced by high fluoride was a cause for low KLK4 expression.
KeywordsNaF Foxo1 KLK4 MMP20
We thank Professor Malcolm L. Snead (Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Southern California) for donation of LS8 cells.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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