Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 186, Issue 1, pp 154–161 | Cite as

Inorganic Vanadium Supplementation in Crossbred Calves: Effects on Antioxidant Status, Immune Response and Haemato-Biochemical Attributes

  • Ravi Prakash Pal
  • Veena ManiEmail author
  • Deepika Tripathi
  • Chander Datt


The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inorganic vanadium (V) supplementation on antioxidant enzymes, immune status, and haemato-biochemical attributes of growing crossbred calves. Twenty-four male Karan Fries calves (Tharparkar × Holstein Friesian) (initial body mass 72.83 ± 2.5 kg; age 3–9 month) were randomly allocated to four groups: the control (received basal diet devoid of supplemental V), the 3 ppm (received basal diet with 3 mg/kg V), the 6 ppm (received basal diet with 6 mg/kg V) and the 9 ppm group (received basal diet with 9 mg/kg V). All the calves were fed for 150 days as per ICAR (2013) feeding standards to meet their nutrient requirements for 500 g growth rate/day. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the start of experiment and subsequently at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days post-V supplementation for determination of antioxidant enzyme activity, immunological parameters and haemato-biochemical attributes. Results indicated that dietary supplementation of V did not affect daily gain, feed intake and haematological parameters. Crossbred calves fed with 9 mg V/kg diet showed reduced (P < 0.05) plasma total cholesterol concentration; however, plasma total protein and glucose concentration remained unaltered. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity as well as immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in group supplemented with 9 mg V/kg DM; however, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity and total plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration were similar in all experimental group. Dietary V supplementation showed a negative relation with plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, whereas non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration remained unaltered among all groups. Plasma V level increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary V levels without affecting levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn. In conclusion, a dietary addition of 9 mg V/kg DM reduced cholesterol content and improved antioxidant and immune response in growing crossbred calves.


Antioxidant enzyme Crossbred calves Haemato-biochemical Immunity Vanadium 



The authors would like to thank the staff of the Animal Nutrition Division and Cattle Yard, Karnal, ICAR-NDRI, India. This study was funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi Prakash Pal
    • 1
  • Veena Mani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Deepika Tripathi
    • 1
  • Chander Datt
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Nutrition DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

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