Antimony-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Mice
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Groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic and other metals, and metal-contaminated drinking water is the biggest threat to public health in Bangladesh. Toxic metals present in the drinking water have a strong relationship with chronic diseases in humans. Antimony (Sb), a naturally occurring metal, has been reported to be present in the drinking water along with other heavy metals in Bangladesh. Although Sb is present in the environment, very little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sb. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of Sb on neurobehavioral changes like anxiety, learning and memory impairment, and blood indices related to organ dysfunction. Mice exposed to antimony potassium-tartrate hydrate (Sb) (10 mg/kg body weight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the time spent in open arms while increased the time spent in closed arms compared to the control mice in elevated plus maze. The mean latency time of control group to find the platform decreased (p < 0.05) significantly during 7 days learning as compared to Sb-treated group in Morris water maze test, and Sb-exposed group spent significantly (p < 0.05) less time in the desired quadrant as compared to the control group in probe trial. Sb treatment also significantly altered blood indices related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Additionally, Sb-induced biochemical alterations were associated with significant perturbations in histological architecture of liver and kidney of Sb-exposed mice. These data suggest that Sb has a toxic effect on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice.
KeywordsGroundwater Toxicity Antimony Anxiety Spatial memory Learning
We thank MUSC Center for Global Health for their support.
This work was supported by grants from the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh (300(6)-5/52/RABI/BINGAN(1) and the grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh (39.009.006.01.00.049.2013-2014/BS/104).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethical approval (No: 67/320/IAMEBBC/IBSC) for this study was taken from the Institutional Animal, Medical Ethics, Biosafety and Biosecurity Committee (IAMEBBC), Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. All animals received human care in compliance with the institutional guidelines.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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