A Neuro-Comparative Study between Single/Successive Thorium Dose Intoxication and Alginate Treatment

Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

The adult male albino rats were grouped into five groups (control group and four variably treated groups with thorium (Th) in single or successive with or without alginate treatment). The IP administration of thorium nitrate (13.6 mg/kg b.wt.) induced a regional distribution and accumulation ordered as cerebellum > cerebral cortex > brain stem > hippocampus > hypothalamus > striatum. Also, it induces a significant increase in Na+, Ca2+, and Fe3+ ion content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level while K+ ions and glutathione (GSH) level were significantly decreased. On the other hand, the daily oral administration of 5% alginate showed a significant decreasing in the accumulation of thorium in the different brain areas and mitigated its hazardous effects. By the alginate treatment, Na+, Ca2+, Fe3+, and level of MDA were declined while K+ ions and GSH level showed a significant increase. The improvement of the investigated parameters was attributed to the specific chelating, regeneration, and antioxidant properties of the alginate. So, alginate administration could ameliorate the hazardous effects of thorium nitrate.

Keywords

Thorium Alginate Brain Ions MDA GSH 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am indebted forever with sincere gratitude and thanks to Prof. Dr. Tarek Fahmy Mohammedan Professor of Geochemistry Nuclear Material Authority, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and counseling encouragement to me.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The investigation protocol was approved by the ethics committee of nuclear material authority, which is performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the US guidelines (NIH Publication no. 85-23, amended in 1985).

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Ali M, Kumar A, Pandey BN (2014) Thorium induced cytoproliferative effect in human liver cell HepG2: role of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and downstream signaling. Chem Biol Interact 211:29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2014.01.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aluani D, Tzankova V, Kondeva-Burdina M, Yordanov Y, Nikolova E et al (2017) Evaluation of biocompatibility and antioxidant efficiency of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles loaded with quercetin. Int J Biol Macromol 11:1–46Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), Public Health Statement for Thorium 1990, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov.
  4. 4.
    Bloom, F.E. (2006): Neurotransmission and the central nervous system In:the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Lazo, J.S. And Parker, K.L. (Eds)., New York, The McGraw-Hill Companies, chapter 12, 317–341Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chaki T, Kajimoto N, Ogawa H, Baba T, Hiura N (2007) Metabolism and calcium antagonism of sodium alginate oligosaccharides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71(8):1819–1825.  https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.60620 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chien-YuLin S, Wang Y, Wertheim D, Coombes A (2017) Production and in vitro evaluation of macroporous, cell-encapsulating alginate fibers for nerve repair. Mater Sci Eng 73:653–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chitra KC, Latchoumycandane C, Mathur PP (2003) Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol a in the epididymal sperm of rats. Toxicology 14:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cicik B, Engin K (2005) The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus Carpio (L., 1758). Turk J Vet Arum Sci 29:113–117Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dotan Y, Lichtenberg D, Pinchuk I (2004) Lipid peroxidation cannot be used as a universal criterion of oxidative stress. Prog Lipid Res 43(3):200–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2003.10.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Du AL, Sabatié-Gogova A, Morgenstern A, Montavon G (2012) Is DTPA a good competing chelating agent for Th(IV) in human serum and suitable in targeted alpha therapy? J Inorg Biochem 109:82–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.12.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ellman GL (1959) Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 82(1):70–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    FAO “Food Administration Organization” (1992) Committee for Inland fisheries of Africa. Report of the third session of the working party on pollution and Hisheries. Accra, Ghana, pp 25–29Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flowler BA (1975) Heavy metals in the environment an overview. Environ Health Perspect 10:259–260.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7510259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Glover SE, Traub RJ, Grimm CA et al (2001) Distribution of natural thorium in the tissues of a whole body. Radiat Prot Dosim 97(2):153–160.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a006653 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glowinski LJ, Iversen LL (1966) Regonal studies of catecholamines in the rat brain. I. Disposition of ha-noradrenaline, ha-dopamine and ha-dopa in various regions of brain. J Neurochem 13(8):655–669.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1966.tb09873.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gonzalez-Vasconcellos I, Domke T, Kuosaite V et al (2011) Differential effects of genes of the Rb1signalling pathway on osteosarcoma incidence and latency in alpha-particle irradiated mice. RadiatEnviron Biophys 50(1):135–141Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guerra D, Viana R, da Costa L, Airoldi C (2009) Sodium alginate films modified by raw and functionalized attapulgite for use of thorium(IV) adsorption: a thermodynamic approach. J Phys Chem Solids 70(11):1413–1421.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gutteridge JM (1995) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage. Clin Chem 41(12 Pt 2):1819–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (2007) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 4th edn. Oxford University, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Han EH, Choi JH, Hwang YP, Park HJ, Choi CY, Chung YC, Jeong HG (2009) Immuno stimulatory activity of aqueous extract isolated from Prunella Vulgaris. Food Chem Toxicol 47(1):62–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.10.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haque S, Md S, Sahni JK, Ali J, Baboota S (2014) Development and evaluation of brain targeted intranasal alginate nanoparticles for treatment of depression. J Psychiatr Res 48(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.10.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Helaly O, Abd El-Ghany M, Borai E, Aly H, Abdel FT (2015) Separation of cerium, light and heavy rare earth concentrates from Egyptian crude monazite. Chem Tech Ind J 10(5):184–192Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kochhann D, Pavanato M, Llesuy S, Correa L, Riffel LR et al (2009) Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different thorium concentrations. Chemosphere 77(3):384–391.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.07.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kovacic P, Jacintho JD (2001) Reproductive toxins, pervasive theme of oxidative stress and electron transfer. Curr Med Chem 8(7):863–892.  https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867013372878 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar A, Mishra P, Ghosh S, Sharma P, Ali M, Pandey B, Mishra K (2008) Thorium-induced oxidative stress mediated toxicity in mice and its abrogation by Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate. Int J Radiat Biol 84(4):337–349.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09553000801983133 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar A, Ali M, Pandey B, Hassan P, Mishra M (2010) Role of membrane sialic acid and glycophorin protein in thorium induced aggregation and hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Biochimie 92(7):869–879.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2010.03.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumar A, Sharma P, Ali M, Pandey B, Mishra B (2012) Decorporation and therapeutic efficacy of liposomal-DTPA against thorium-induced toxicity in the Wistar rat. Int J Radiat Biol 88(3):223–229.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2011.634883 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumar A, Ali M, Pandey B (2013) Understanding the biological effects of thorium and developing efficient strategies for its Decorporation and mitigation. Bark Newslett 335:55–56Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee KY, Mooney DJ (2012) Alginate: properties and biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 37(1):106–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.06.003 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Likhachev YP (1976) Pathological anatomy, etiology and pathogenesis of remote sequelae of radiation dust exposure. Arkh Patol 38(4):18–26. [Russian]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu Z, Lee TS, Kotek TJ (1992) Mortality among workers in a thorium-processing plant--a second followup. Scand J Work Environ Health 18(3):162–168.  https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1592 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marczenko, Z. (1986). In spectrophotometric determination of elements (Ellis Harwood ltd, ChichesteGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mclinton L.T. and Schubert J, (1948) The toxicity of some zirconium and thorium salt in rate, the journal of pharmacology and experimental the therapeutics, 1-6Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakazono S, Cho K, Isaka S, Abu R, Yokose T (2016) Anti-obesity effects of enzymatically-digested alginate oligomer in mice model fed a high-fat-diet. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 7(2):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2016.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nguyen V, Ko S, Oh G, Heo S, Jeonc J, Parkd, W, Choib W, Choif S, Jung S, (2017). Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium alginate/gelatine porous scaffolds merged with fucoidan in murine microglial BV2 cells international journal of biological macromolecules 1–35Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Ann Biochem 95(2):351–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Qi H, Zhang Q, Zhao T, Chen R, Zhang H, Niu X, Li Z (2005) Antioxidant activity of different sulfate content derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva Pertusa (Chlorophyta)in vitro. Int J Biol Macro- Mol 37(4):195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rassu G, Salis A, Porcu E, Giunchedi P, Roldo M, Gavini E (2016) Composite chitosan/alginate hydrogel for controlled release of deferoxamine: a system to potentially treat iron dysregulation diseases. Carbohydr Polym 136:1338–1347.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roloff E, Harbaran D, Micheau J, Platt B, Riedel G (2007) Dissociation of cholinergic function in spatial and procedural learning in rats. Neuroscience 146(3):875–889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.02.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sarei F, Dounighi M, Zolfagharian H, Khaki P, Bidhendi M (2013) Alginate nanoparticles as a promising adjuvant and vaccine delivery systems. Indian. J Pharm Sci 75(4):442–449Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schlemmer HP, Liebermann D, Naser V et al (2000) Locoregional late effects of paravascular Thorotrast deposits: results of the German Thorotrast study. J Neuroradiol 27(4):253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sellimil S., Younes, I., Ayed H., Maalej H, Montero V,Rinaudo M et al (2014). Structural, physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sodium alginate isolated from a Tunisian brown seaweed. Int J Biol Macromol 1–38Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sosnik, A., (2014). Alginate particles as platform for drug delivery by the oral route: state-of-the-art. ISRN PharmGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sun Y, Liang H, Cai G, Guan S, Tong H, Yang X, LiuJ (2009) Sulfated modification of the water-soluble polysaccharides from Polyporusalbicans mycelia and its potential biological activities. Int J Biol Macromol 44(1):14–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2008.09.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ueno M, Hiroki T, Takeshita S, Jiang Z, Kim D, Yamaguchi K, Oda T (2012) Comparative study on antioxidative and macrophage-stimulating activities of polyguluronicacid(PG)and polymannuronic acid(PM) prepared from alginate. Carbohydr Res 352:88–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2012.02.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Uno T, Hattori M, Yoshida T (2006) Oral administration of alginic acid oligosaccharide suppresses IgE production and inhibits the induction of oral tolerance. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(12):3054–3057.  https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.60391 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Van-Tinh N, Seok-Chun K, Gun-Woo O, Seong-Yeong H, You-Jin J, Won sun P, Whan C, Sung-Wook C, Won-Kyo J (2016) Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium alginate/gelatine porous scaffolds merged with fucoidan in murine microglial BV2 cells. Int J Biol Macromol 93:1620–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Villegas G, Fernandez J (1966) Permeability to thorium dioxide of the intercellular spaces of the frog cerebral hemisphere, experiment. Neurol 15:18–36Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Watanabe T, Iwasaki K, Ishikane S, Naitou T, Yoshimitsu Y, Yamagata N, Ozdemir MB, Takasaki K, Egashira N, Mishima K, Fujiwara M (2008) Spatial memory impairment without apoptosis induced by the combination of beta amyloid oligomers and cerebral ischemia is related to decreased acetylcholine release in rats. J Pharmacol Sci 106(1):84–91.  https://doi.org/10.1254/jphs.FP0071648 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamamoto Y, Kurachi M, Yamaguchi K, Oda T (2007) Stimulation of multiple cytokine production in mice by alginate oligosaccharides following intraperitoneal administration. Carbohydr Res 342(8):1133–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2007.02.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yang W, Yu J, Zhao L, Ma N, Fang Y, Mariga A, Hu Q (2015) Polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes improve scopolamine-induced impairment of learning and memory of rats. J Funct Foods 18:411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yellepeddi, V. (2015): Principal of drug therapy. Whalen, K.; Finkel, R.; Panavelil, T.A. (eds.) in: Lippincott illustrated reviews: pharmacology sixth edition, philadilphia, Baltimora, Newyork. P1–25Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhao K, Chen T, Lin B, Cui W, Kan B, Yang N, Zhou X, Zhang X, Wei J (2015) Adsorption and recognition of protein molecular imprinted calcium alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogel film with good regeneration performance and high toughness. React Funct Polym 87:7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Isotopes Department, Nuclear Materials AuthorityCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations