Cadmium Profiles in Dental Calculus: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Hunan Province of China
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We aimed to investigate whether the cadmium concentrations differ in human dental calculus obtained from the residents with no smoking living in the contaminated area and those with no smoking living in noncontaminated area. In total, there were 260 samples of dental calculus from the adults (n = 50) with no smoking living in contaminated area, the adults (n = 60) with no smoking living in mountainous area, and the adults (n = 150) with no smoking living in low altitude area in Hunan province of China. All samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for cadmium levels. The cadmium levels in dental calculus were significantly higher in the adults with no smoking living in contaminated area than those living in mountainous area and in low altitude area (p < 0.01). The cadmium levels in dental calculus were also higher in the adults with no smoking living in low altitude area than those living in mountainous region (p < 0.01). The results suggested that measuring cadmium levels in dental calculus may be a useful noninvasive method for analysis of environmental exposure to cadmium in the human oral cavity. The low altitude region may have an area contaminated with cadmium in Hunan province of China.
KeywordsCadmium Dental calculus Biomarker Altitude Pollution ICP-MS
The authors would like to thank Dr. and Prof. Tian-Ting Zhang, at The Third Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, PR China, for encouragement and support for this study.
Dr. Bo Zhang, Dr. Xiaodan Tan, and Mr. Kunlun Zhang contributed equally to this work. Dr. Bo Zhang, Dr. Xiaodan Tan and Mr. Kunlun Zhang participated in the study design. Dr. Bo Zhang, Dr. Xiaodan Tan and Mr. Kunlun Zhang collected dental calculus samples. Dr. Bo Zhang and Dr. Xiaodan Tan performed experiments. Dr. Bo Zhang analyzed data. Dr. Bo Zhang and Dr. Xiaodan Tan wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the paper.
This study was supported by Hunan S & T Project of China Hunan provincial science and technology department (Grant No. 2014FJ3032).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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