The Divalent Elements Changes in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
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As the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, it can cause imbalance in some divalent elements. These imbalances can cause increased oxidative stress in patients with renal impairment. The aim of present study was to investigate the changes of these divalent elements with CKD progression. One hundred and ninety-four patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) were divided into five stages, stage 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4, and were recruited into this study. The divalent elements, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, as well as iron, zinc, and copper were determined in clinical chemistry analyzer. Higher CKD stages were found to be associated with increased levels of phosphorus and copper; Ptrend values were 0.002 and 0.004, respectively. Also, higher CKD stages were associated with decreased levels of zinc; Ptrend value was 0.002, after adjustment for age, gender, smoke, education, diabetes, hypertension, and BMI. Decreased levels of zinc and elevated levels of phosphorus and copper might increase the oxidative stress and complications in CKD patients. Future randomized studies are needed to show whether adjusting dietary intake of phosphorus, copper, and zinc might affect the progression of CKD.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Divalent element Trace element Zinc Copper Magnesium Iron
This study was supported by Fooyin University Hospital (Grant no: FH-HR-100-03).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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