Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 30–35 | Cite as

The Divalent Elements Changes in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Wan-Ju Kung
  • Ching-Tang Shih
  • Chien-Hung Lee
  • Ching-Chiang LinEmail author


As the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, it can cause imbalance in some divalent elements. These imbalances can cause increased oxidative stress in patients with renal impairment. The aim of present study was to investigate the changes of these divalent elements with CKD progression. One hundred and ninety-four patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) were divided into five stages, stage 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4, and were recruited into this study. The divalent elements, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, as well as iron, zinc, and copper were determined in clinical chemistry analyzer. Higher CKD stages were found to be associated with increased levels of phosphorus and copper; Ptrend values were 0.002 and 0.004, respectively. Also, higher CKD stages were associated with decreased levels of zinc; Ptrend value was 0.002, after adjustment for age, gender, smoke, education, diabetes, hypertension, and BMI. Decreased levels of zinc and elevated levels of phosphorus and copper might increase the oxidative stress and complications in CKD patients. Future randomized studies are needed to show whether adjusting dietary intake of phosphorus, copper, and zinc might affect the progression of CKD.


Chronic kidney disease Divalent element Trace element Zinc Copper Magnesium Iron 



This study was supported by Fooyin University Hospital (Grant no: FH-HR-100-03).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan-Ju Kung
    • 1
  • Ching-Tang Shih
    • 2
  • Chien-Hung Lee
    • 3
  • Ching-Chiang Lin
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineFooyin University HospitalPingtungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineFooyin University HospitalPingtungTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine Research CenterKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Medical Laboratory Science and BiotechnologyFooyin UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Education and ResearchFooyin University HospitalPingtungTaiwan

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