Serum Copper Homeostasis in Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage and its Clinical Significance
- 74 Downloads
This study was to investigate the alterations of serum copper homeostasis after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which is not yet clear. We recruited 85 hypertensive ICH patients and determined their serum levels of total copper (TCu), small molecule copper (SMC), and ceruloplasmin (Cp). Sera from 32 healthy persons and 12 primary hypertension patients were collected and analyzed as well. Serum TCu levels in ICH patients were tested at three time points (on admission, day 3, and day 7) and found to be higher than that in hypertension patients (p < 0.05). The serum SMC levels in hypertension patients and ICH patients at three time points were higher than that in healthy controls (p < 0.05). Higher serum SMC levels on days 3 and 7 were associated with death in the hospital. Additionally, higher serum SMC levels on the seventh day were associated with poor outcome at discharge. High serum Cp levels on admission, as well as low serum Cp levels on the seventh day, were associated with death in the hospital (p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our findings indicated that declines in serum Cp and increases in serum SMC are correlated with lethal or poor outcome in hypertensive ICH patients, possibly as a result of contributions to secondary injury of brain after hemorrhage due to impairment of iron transport and enhanced oxidative stress.
KeywordsCopper homeostasis Hypertension Intracerebral hemorrhage Ceruloplasmin
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (project number: 81172088), the Joint Scientific Special Foundation of Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology-Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2012A032500009).
- 3.Barrow L, Tanner MS (1988) Copper distribution among serum proteins in paediatric liver disorders and malignancies. Eur J Clin Investig 18(6):555–560. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.1988.tb01267.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Grammer TB, Kleber ME, Silbernagel G, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, Lerchbaum E, Tomaschitz A, Koenig W, Marz W (2014) Copper, ceruloplasmin, and long-term cardiovascular and total mortality (the Ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study). Free Radic Res 48(6):706–715. https://doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2014.901510 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Lai M, Wang D, Lin Z, Zhang Y (2016) Small molecule copper and its relative metabolites in serum of cerebral ischemic stroke patients. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 25(1):214–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.09.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Altintas O, Duruyen H, Baran G, Baran O, Katar S, Antar V, Asil T (2017) The relationship of hematoma growth to red blood cell distribution width in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Turk Neurosurg 27(3):368–373. https://doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.16136-15.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Wagner KR, Sharp FR, Ardizzone TD, Lu A, Clark JF (2003) Heme and iron metabolism: role in cerebral hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23(6):629–652. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.WCB.0000073905.87928.6D CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Hua Y, Keep RF, Hoff JT, Xi G (2007) Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage: the role of thrombin and iron. Stroke 38(2):759–762. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000247868.97078.10 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Shapouri-Moghaddam A, Azimi-Nezhad M, Esmaeili H, Parizadeh SM, Safarian M, Kazemi-Bajestani SM, Khodaei GH, Hosseini SJ, Parizadeh SM, Ferns GA (2009) The relationship between established coronary risk factors and serum copper and zinc concentrations in a large Persian cohort. J Trace Elem Med Biol 23(3):167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009.03.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Hellman NE, Gitlin JD (2002) Ceruloplasmin metabolism and function. Annu Rev Nutr 22(1):439–458. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.22.012502.114457 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar