Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 183, Issue 1, pp 92–101 | Cite as

Analysis and Risk Assessment of Seven Toxic Element Residues in Raw Bovine Milk in China

  • Xue-Yin Qu
  • Nan Zheng
  • Xue-Wei Zhou
  • Song-Li Li
  • Jia-Qi Wang
  • Wen-Ju Zhang
Article
  • 210 Downloads

Abstract

The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.

Keywords

Raw bovine milk Toxic elements ICP-MS Risk assessment China 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by special fund for agro-scientific research in the public interest (201403071), The Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IAS12).

References

  1. 1.
    Licata P, Trombetta D, Cristani M, Giofrè F, Martino D, Calò M, Naccari F (2004) Levels of “toxic” and “essential” metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy. Environ Int 30(1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/s0160-4120(03)00139-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oliver MA (1997) Soil and human health: a review. Eumpean Journal of Soil Science 48:573–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen C, Mi X, Yuan Y, Chen G, Ren L, Wang K, Zhu D, Qian Y (2014) A preliminary risk assessment of potential exposure to naturally occurring estrogens from Beijing (China) market milk products. Food Chem Toxicol 71:74–80. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.028 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kazi TG, Jalbani N, Baig JA, Kandhro GA, Afridi HI, Arain MB, Jamali MK, Shah AQ (2009) Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Food Chem Toxicol 47(9):2163–2169. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.035 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D'Ilio S, Petrucci F, D'Amato M, Di Gregorio M, Senofonte O, Violante N (2008) Method validation for determination of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead in milk by means of dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 624(1):59–67. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.06.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kottferova J, Korenekova B (1995) The effect of emission of heavy metals concentrations in cattle from the area of an industrial plant in Slovakia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 29:400–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, Canfield RL, Dietrich KN, Bornschein R, Greene T, Rothenberg SJ, Needleman HL, Schnaas L, Wasserman G, Graziano J, Roberts R (2005) Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113(7):894–899. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7688 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Potortì AG, Di Bella G, Lo Turco V, Rando R, Dugo G (2013) Non-toxic and potentially toxic elements in Italian donkey milk by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. J Food Compos Anal 31(1):161–172. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Commission Regulation (EC) (2006) Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuffs. No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China (MOH) (2012) Maximum levels of contamination in foods. GB 2762–2012Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1995) Codex general standard for contaminations and toxins in food and feed. Codex-Standard-193-1995Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Caggiano R, Sabia S, D'Emilio M, Macchiato M, Anastasio A, Ragosta M, Paino S (2005) Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of southern Italy. Environ Res 99(1):48–57. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2004.11.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khan N, Jeong IS, Hwang IM, Kim JS, Choi SH, Nho EY, Choi JY, Park KS, Kim KS (2014) Analysis of minor and trace elements in milk and yogurts by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chem 147:220–224. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.147 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patra RC, Swarup D, Kumar P, Nandi D, Naresh R, Ali SL (2008) Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmium around different industrial units. Sci Total Environ 404(1):36–43. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simsek O, Gultekin R, Oksuz O, Kurultay S (2000) The effect of environmental pollution on the heavy metal content of raw milk. Mol Nutr Food Res 44:360–371Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tajkarimi M, Ahmadi Faghih M, Poursoltani H, Salah Nejad A, Motallebi AA, Mahdavi H (2008) Lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of Iran. Food Control 19(5):495–498. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qu XY, Zheng N, Wang JQ, Xu XM, Han RW, Zhen YP, Li SL (2013) Survey of heavy metal residues in raw milk in Tangshan City of China. J Food Agric Environ 11:259–262Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sola-Larrañaga C, Navarro-Blasco I (2009) Chemometric analysis of minerals and trace elements in raw cow milk from the community of Navarra, Spain. Food Chem 112(1):189–196. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boobis AR, Ossendorp BC, Banasiak U, Hamey PY, Sebestyen I, Moretto A (2008) Cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues in food. Toxicol Lett 180(2):137–150. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.06.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2005). Opinion of the scientific committee on a request from EFSA related to a harmonised approach for risk assessment of substances which are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. EFSA JournalGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benford D, Bolger PM, Carthew P, Coulet M, DiNovi M, Leblanc JC, Renwick AG, Setzer W, Schlatter J, Smith B, Slob W, Williams G, Wildemann T (2010) Application of the margin of exposure (MOE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Food Chem Toxicol 48(Suppl 1):S2–24. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    WHO/IPCS (2009) Principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicalsGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014). Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population. EFSA J 12Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009) Scientific opinion on arsenic in food. EFSA J 7:1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014). Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of chromium in food and drinking water. EFSA J 12Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2010) Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA J 8:1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2012) Scientific opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food. EFSA J 10:2985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2015) Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of nickel in food and drinking water. EFSA J 13Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2008) Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, Flavourings, processing aids and food contact materials (AFC). EFSA J 754:1–34Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002) Child-specific exposure factors handbookGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chinese Society of Nutrition (2011) Chinese dietary guidelinesGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Length height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age Methods and developmentGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water qualityGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Agency for Toxic Substances (ATSDR) (2016) ATSDR minimum risk levels (MRLs)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China (MOH) (2008) Criterion in quality control of laboratories-chemical testing of food. GB/T 27404–2008Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bilandžić N, Đokić M, Sedak M, Solomun B, Varenina I, Knežević Z, Benić M (2011) Trace element levels in raw milk from northern and southern regions of Croatia. Food Chem 127(1):63–66. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vidovic M, Sadibasic A, Cupic S, Lausevic M (2005) Cd and Zn in atmospheric deposit, soil, wheat, and milk. Environ Res 97(1):26–31. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2004.05.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herwig N, Stephan K, Panne U, Pritzkow W, Vogl J (2011) Multi-element screening in milk and feed by SF-ICP-MS. Food Chem 124(3):1223–1230. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu ZP (2003) Lead poisoning combined with cadmium in sheep and horses in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal smelters. Sci Total Environ 309(1–3):117–126. doi: 10.1016/s0048-9697(03)00011-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rey-Crespo F, Miranda M, Lopez-Alonso M (2013) Essential trace and toxic element concentrations in organic and conventional milk in NW Spain. Food Chem Toxicol 55:513–518. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int 31(6):805–812. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.042 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yu QL (2004) Hazard analysis and safety system on the food chain of environment-forage-yak meat/milk products in Tianzhu. Gansu Agriculture University,Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zheng N, Wang JQ, Han RW, Zhen YP, Xu XM, Sun P (2013) Survey of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the five provinces of China. Food Addit Contam: Part B 6(2):110–115. doi: 10.1080/19393210.2012.763191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Corrected publication August/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue-Yin Qu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nan Zheng
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xue-Wei Zhou
    • 2
    • 3
  • Song-Li Li
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jia-Qi Wang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wen-Ju Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Animal Science and TechnologyShihezi UniversityXinjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Ministry of Agriculture - Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products (Beijing)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations