Bioprocess Evaluation of Petroleum Wastewater Treatment with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle for the Production of Methane Gas: Process Assessment and Modelling

  • A. AhmadEmail author


The process evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO NP) was added to enhance the degradation of petroleum wastewater (PWW) fermentation system with different mixing ratios for enhancing methane production. The results showed that the highest methane yield and total solids (TS) removal ratio reached 485 mL/g-VS L PWW added and 81.9% at the ZnO NP g-VS L PWW ratio of 4.5:15, respectively. The proposed model CO2 sequester 545 mL CO2/L PWW, production rate 750 mL CH4 g-VS L PWW/h, and CH4 yield was 4.85 L CH4 g-VS L PWW at 4.5:15 of ZnO NP g-VS L PWW. The kinetic analysis indicated that the modified Gompertz model best fitted the actual evolution of methane yields, as evidenced by the low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) as well as high correlation difference between (Diff.%) the predicted and actual values. The parameters analyses were highlighted that the PWW digestion with ZnO NP substantially enhanced the hydrolysis rate (khyd), methanogenesis potential (fd), lag phase time h (λ), and methane production rate (Rm) of PWW. The evolution of soluble metabolites, utilization of ZnO NP and carbohydrates were also improved by co-fermentation.


ZnO nanoparticle PWW degradation Methane yield CO2 and solid wastes reduction System evaluation 



Petroleum wastewater


Volatile solids


Chemical oxygen demand (g/L)




Biochemical oxygen demand (mg/L)


Dilution rate, 1/HRT (day_1)




Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L)


Oil and grease (mg/L)


Organic loading rate (kg/m3/day)


Substrate concentration in the reactor (mg/L)


Influent substrate concentration (mg/L)


Effluent substrate concentration (mg/L)


Soluble chemical oxygen demand (mg/L)


Solid retention time (day)


Suspended solid (mg/L)


Time (day)


Mixed liquor suspended sludge (mg/L)


Sludge volume index (mL/L)


Total nitrogen (mg/L)


Total solid (mg/L)


Total volatile solid (mg/L)


Upflow anaerobic sludge fixed film


Volume reactor (L)


Volatile fatty acid (mg/L)


Total carbon


Volatile suspended solid (mg/L)


Sludge settling velocity (m/h)


Specific methanogenic activity


measured methane yield (L/g CODadded)


methane potential (mL g COD L POMEadded)


Difference between


Methane production rate (mL/g COD/h)


Hydrolysis rate (g COD/day)


Shape factor


Lag phase time (h)


Standard error of estimate


Root mean square prediction error



The authors thank the deanship of scientific research (DSR) at the University of Nizwa (UNIZWA) for this research by the Research Cluster Group Energy, Environment and Sustainable technology.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, College of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of NizwaNizwaSultanate of Oman

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