Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 189, Issue 3, pp 919–932 | Cite as

Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Nano-hydroxyapatite Derived from Turkey Femur-Bone Waste

  • Amirhossein Esmaeilkhanian
  • Fariborz SharifianjaziEmail author
  • Aliasghar Abouchenari
  • Amirreza Rouhani
  • Nader Parvin
  • Mohammad Irani


Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive and vital material which has found many applications in the biomedical and clinical fields. This bio-ceramic powder can be synthesized via different bio-waste materials. In this study, the production of natural nanohydroxyapatite was produced through calcination of untreated turkey femur-bone waste powder at 850 °C followed by ball milling the powder. The obtained powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The morphology, size, and elemental composition of obtained turkey hydroxyapatite (THA) particles were investigated by scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmission electron microcopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, in which the average particle size of ball milled THA was found to be about 85 nm with a Ca/P ratio of 1.63. The powder was then cold pressed and later sintered at 850, 950, 1050, and 1150 °C to evaluate its mechanical properties in terms of compressive strength and hardness. The results revealed that the strength and hardness of the samples increased by increasing the sintering temperature up to 1150 °C. Finally, the maximum values of hardness and compressive strength of the sintered THA were obtained at 1150 °C (37.44 MPa and 3.2 GPa, respectively).


Nano-hydroxyapatite Turkey femur-bone waste Ball mill Sintering 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors have participated in the (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of the data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (c) approval of the final version. This manuscript has not been submitted to, nor is under review at, another journal or other publishing venue. The authors have no affiliation with any organization with a direct or indirect financial interest in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amirhossein Esmaeilkhanian
    • 1
  • Fariborz Sharifianjazi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aliasghar Abouchenari
    • 2
  • Amirreza Rouhani
    • 3
  • Nader Parvin
    • 1
  • Mohammad Irani
    • 4
  1. 1.Mining and Metallurgical Engineering DepartmentAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Material Science and EngineeringShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical, Industrial & Aerospace EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

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