Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 189, Issue 2, pp 661–679 | Cite as

Activity-Structure Study on the Peptide Fraction of AG2: a Potent In Vitro Transfection Agent

  • Lucia D. Grippo
  • Juan M. Rudi
  • María M. De Zan
  • Antonella Giorello
  • Sebastián Antuña
  • Claudio C. Prieto
  • Carolina M. I. Veaute
  • Diana M. MüllerEmail author


Gemini-based amphiphiles are candidates for biomedical applications. In fact, most of the gemini compounds described in the literature have been prepared to be used as new synthetic vectors in gene transfection. Our group carried out an activity-structure study starting from the structure of the gemini [AG2-C18/]2, which is an effective in vitro transfection reagent. We synthesized a series of novel amphiphilic amino acid derivatives of low molecular weight, named AGn-Cm (N), in which the same apolar region (m) of oleic or palmitic acid was maintained and the peptide region was modified by amino acid insertions, deletions, and substitutions. We also determined the transfection efficiency, critical micelle concentration, particle size, and ζ-potential for these derivatives. Amphiphiles AG10-C16 and AG10-C18 were more active at a lower N/P ratio than AG2-C18. These amphiphiles showed no activity when lysine was replaced by ornithine, and the activity of all derivatives increased when there were more ornithine residues and a W/O = 1 ratio in the peptide region. It can be said that for AG10-C16, these two structural requirements on the amino acid portion predominated over the type of aliphatic chain used.


Amphiphile N-Acylated Cysteine Gemini Ornithine Transfection 


Funding Information

This work was supported by grants from CAI+D 2016, Seed Capital, and the University Policies System (SPU) of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral (U.N.L).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia D. Grippo
    • 1
  • Juan M. Rudi
    • 1
  • María M. De Zan
    • 2
  • Antonella Giorello
    • 3
  • Sebastián Antuña
    • 4
  • Claudio C. Prieto
    • 4
  • Carolina M. I. Veaute
    • 5
  • Diana M. Müller
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.LAQUIMAP, Departamento Química Orgánica, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad Nacional del LitoralSanta FeArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Control de MedicamentosUniversidad Nacional del LitoralSanta FeArgentina
  3. 3.Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y PetroquímicaUniversidad Nacional del LitoralSanta FeArgentina
  4. 4.Laboratorio de Cultivos CelularesUniversidad Nacional del LitoralSanta FeArgentina
  5. 5.Laboratorio de Inmunología BásicaUniversidad Nacional del LitoralSanta FeArgentina

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