Amino Acid Supplementations Enhance the Stress Resistance and Fermentation Performance of Lager Yeast During High Gravity Fermentation
The effects of different wort gravity or ethanol concentration in initial wort on the fermentation performance of lager yeast and assimilation of free amino acids (FAAs) were studied. Results showed that compared with high wort gravity (24°P), high ethanol concentration (10%, v/v) decreased yeast growth, cell viability, and wort fermentability significantly. The assimilation of FAAs was changed dramatically by high ethanol toxicity, and positive correlations between the assimilation amounts of 10 FAAs (Asp, Ser, Gly, Arg, Tyr, Val, Met, Lys, Ile, and Leu) and fermentation performance (cell viability, fermentability, and ethanol production) were identified, especially for Arg and Lys exhibiting extremely significant positive correlations. Furthermore, confirmatory testing was carried out by supplementing 24°P worts with 10 FAAs of 0.5, 1, and 2 times of their standard concentrations, respectively. Results exhibited that 10 FAA supplementations improved physiological characteristics and fermentation performance of lager yeast significantly, especially for 1 times FAA supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol yield by 6 and 17%, respectively, and upregulated the expression level of HSP12 and increased more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells, indicating that stronger protective function was stimulated in yeast cells. Therefore, it was suggested that these 10 FAAs could regulate yeast cells to adapt to high gravity environmental stresses.
KeywordsHigh gravity fermentation Lager yeast Free amino acids Physiological characteristics Fermentation performance
Funding was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31501467), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2452016086), and Shaanxi Province Key Research and Development Plan (No. 2017NY-157).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors have read and agreed with the contents of the manuscript. The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.
- 4.Chu-Ky, S., Pham, T. H., Bui, K. L. T., Nguyen, T. T., Pham, K. D., Nguyen, H. D. T., Luong, H. N., Tu, V. P., Nguyen, T. H., Ho, P. H., & Le, T. M. (2016). Simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation at very high gravity of rice at pilot scale for potable ethanol production and distillers dried grains composition. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 98, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Ekberg, J., Rautio, J., Mattinen, L., Vidgren, V., Londesborough, J., & Gibson, B. R. (2013). Adaptive evolution of the lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus for improved growth under hyperosmotic conditions and its influence on fermentation performance. FEMS Yeast Research, 13(3), 335–349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Gorietti, D., Zanni, E., Palleschi, C., Delfini, M., Uccelletti, D., Saliola, M., Puccetti, C., Sobolev, A. P., Mannina, L., & Miccheli, A. (2015). 13C NMR based profiling unveils different α-ketoglutarate pools involved into glutamate and lysine synthesis in the milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1850(11), 2222–2227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Marks, V. D., Sui, S. J. H., Erasmus, D., van der Merwe, G. K., Brumm, J., Wasserman, W. W., Bryan, J., & van Vuuren, H. J. J. (2008). Dynamics of the yeast transcriptome during wine fermentation reveals a novel fermentation stress response. FEMS Yeast Research, 8(1), 35–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Orellana, M., Aceituno, F. F., Slater, A. W., Almonacid, L. I., Melo, F., & Agosin, E. (2014). Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ec1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions. FEMS Yeast Research, 14(3), 412–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Perez-Carrillo, E., Serna-Saldivar, S. O., Chuck-Hernandez, C., & Luisa Cortes-Callejas, M. (2012). Addition of protease during starch liquefaction affects free amino nitrogen, fusel alcohols and ethanol production of fermented maize and whole and decorticated sorghum mashes. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 67, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Piddocke, M. P., Fazio, A., Vongsangnak, W., Wong, M. L., Heldt-Hansen, H. P., Workman, C., Nielsen, J., & Olsson, L. (2011). Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using “-omics” techniques. Microbial Cell Factories, 10(1), 27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 26.Zhou, Y., Yang, H., Zong, X., Cui, C., Mu, L., & Zhao, H. (2018). Effects of wheat gluten hydrolysates fractionated by different methods on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer’s yeast under high gravity fermentation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(3), 812–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar