Advertisement

Amino Acid Supplementations Enhance the Stress Resistance and Fermentation Performance of Lager Yeast During High Gravity Fermentation

Article

Abstract

The effects of different wort gravity or ethanol concentration in initial wort on the fermentation performance of lager yeast and assimilation of free amino acids (FAAs) were studied. Results showed that compared with high wort gravity (24°P), high ethanol concentration (10%, v/v) decreased yeast growth, cell viability, and wort fermentability significantly. The assimilation of FAAs was changed dramatically by high ethanol toxicity, and positive correlations between the assimilation amounts of 10 FAAs (Asp, Ser, Gly, Arg, Tyr, Val, Met, Lys, Ile, and Leu) and fermentation performance (cell viability, fermentability, and ethanol production) were identified, especially for Arg and Lys exhibiting extremely significant positive correlations. Furthermore, confirmatory testing was carried out by supplementing 24°P worts with 10 FAAs of 0.5, 1, and 2 times of their standard concentrations, respectively. Results exhibited that 10 FAA supplementations improved physiological characteristics and fermentation performance of lager yeast significantly, especially for 1 times FAA supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol yield by 6 and 17%, respectively, and upregulated the expression level of HSP12 and increased more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells, indicating that stronger protective function was stimulated in yeast cells. Therefore, it was suggested that these 10 FAAs could regulate yeast cells to adapt to high gravity environmental stresses.

Keywords

High gravity fermentation Lager yeast Free amino acids Physiological characteristics Fermentation performance 

Notes

Funding information

Funding was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31501467), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2452016086), and Shaanxi Province Key Research and Development Plan (No. 2017NY-157).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors have read and agreed with the contents of the manuscript. The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Auesukaree, C. (2017). Molecular mechanisms of the yeast adaptive response and tolerance to stresses encountered during ethanol fermentation. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 124(2), 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Backhus, L. E., DeRisi, J., & Brown, L. F. (2001). Functional genomic analysis of a commercial wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under differing nitrogen conditions. FEMS Yeast Research, 1(2), 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beltran, G., Novo, M., Rozès, N., Mas, A., & Guillamón, J. M. (2004). Nitrogen catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentations. FEMS Yeast Research, 4(6), 625–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu-Ky, S., Pham, T. H., Bui, K. L. T., Nguyen, T. T., Pham, K. D., Nguyen, H. D. T., Luong, H. N., Tu, V. P., Nguyen, T. H., Ho, P. H., & Le, T. M. (2016). Simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation at very high gravity of rice at pilot scale for potable ethanol production and distillers dried grains composition. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 98, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ekberg, J., Rautio, J., Mattinen, L., Vidgren, V., Londesborough, J., & Gibson, B. R. (2013). Adaptive evolution of the lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus for improved growth under hyperosmotic conditions and its influence on fermentation performance. FEMS Yeast Research, 13(3), 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gibson, B. R., Lawrence, S. J., Leclaire, J. P. R., Powell, C. D., & Smart, K. A. (2007). Yeast responses to stresses associated with industrial brewery handling. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 31(5), 535–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gorietti, D., Zanni, E., Palleschi, C., Delfini, M., Uccelletti, D., Saliola, M., Puccetti, C., Sobolev, A. P., Mannina, L., & Miccheli, A. (2015). 13C NMR based profiling unveils different α-ketoglutarate pools involved into glutamate and lysine synthesis in the milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1850(11), 2222–2227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    James, T. C., Campbell, S., Donnelly, D., & Bond, U. (2003). Transcription profile of brewery yeast under fermentation conditions. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94(3), 432–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lei, H., Zhao, H., Yu, Z., & Zhao, M. (2012). Effects of wort gravity and nitrogen level on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 166(6), 1562–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lei, H., Xu, H., Feng, L., Yu, Z., Zhao, H., & Zhao, M. (2016). Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 122(5), 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lei, H., Zhao, H., & Zhao, M. (2013). Proteases supplementation to high gravity worts enhances fermentation performance of brewer’s yeast. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 77, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lei, H., Zheng, L., Wang, C., Zhao, H., & Zhao, M. (2013). Effects of worts treated with proteases on the assimilation of free amino acids and fermentation performance of lager yeast. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 161(2), 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mahmud, S. A., Hirasawa, T., & Shimizu, H. (2010). Differential importance of trehalose accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to various environmental stresses. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 109(3), 262–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marks, V. D., Sui, S. J. H., Erasmus, D., van der Merwe, G. K., Brumm, J., Wasserman, W. W., Bryan, J., & van Vuuren, H. J. J. (2008). Dynamics of the yeast transcriptome during wine fermentation reveals a novel fermentation stress response. FEMS Yeast Research, 8(1), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nakazawa, N., Sato, A., & Hosaka, M. (2016). Torc1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in sake yeast kyokai no. 7, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 121(3), 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nomura, K., Iwahashi, H., Iguchi, A., & Shigematsu, T. (2015). Depletion of arginine in yeast cells decreases the resistance to hydrostatic pressure. High Pressure Research, 35, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Orellana, M., Aceituno, F. F., Slater, A. W., Almonacid, L. I., Melo, F., & Agosin, E. (2014). Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ec1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions. FEMS Yeast Research, 14(3), 412–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perez-Carrillo, E., Serna-Saldivar, S. O., Chuck-Hernandez, C., & Luisa Cortes-Callejas, M. (2012). Addition of protease during starch liquefaction affects free amino nitrogen, fusel alcohols and ethanol production of fermented maize and whole and decorticated sorghum mashes. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 67, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perpete, P., Santos, G., Bodart, E., & Collin, S. (2005). Uptake of amino acids during beer production: the concept of a critical time value. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 63, 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piddocke, M. P., Fazio, A., Vongsangnak, W., Wong, M. L., Heldt-Hansen, H. P., Workman, C., Nielsen, J., & Olsson, L. (2011). Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using “-omics” techniques. Microbial Cell Factories, 10(1), 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Piddocke, M. P., Kreisz, S., Heldt-Hansen, H. P., Nielsen, K. F., & Olsson, L. (2009). Physiological characterization of brewer’s yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 84(3), 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomas, K. C., & Ingledew, W. M. (1992). Relationship of low lysine and high arginine concentrations to efficient ethanolic fermentation of wheat mash. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 38(7), 626–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Verbelen, P. J., & Delvaux, F. R. (2009). Brewing yeast in action: beer fermentation. In M. Rai & P. D. Bridge (Eds.), Appl. Mycol. (pp. 110–135). Oxfordshire: Cabi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang, H., Zong, X., Cui, C., Mu, L., & Zhao, H. (2018). Wheat gluten hydrolysates separated by macroporous resins enhance the stress tolerance in brewer’s yeast. Food Chemistry, 268, 162–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu, Z., Zhao, M., Li, H., Zhao, H., Zhang, Q., Wan, C., & Li, H. (2012). A comparative study on physiological activities of lager and ale brewing yeasts under different gravity conditions. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 17(4), 818–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhou, Y., Yang, H., Zong, X., Cui, C., Mu, L., & Zhao, H. (2018). Effects of wheat gluten hydrolysates fractionated by different methods on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer’s yeast under high gravity fermentation. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(3), 812–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and EngineeringNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

Personalised recommendations