Isolation and Evaluation of New Antagonist Bacillus Strains for the Control of Pathogenic and Mycotoxigenic Fungi of Fig Orchards
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Bacillus is an antagonistic bacteria that shows high effectiveness against different phytopathogenic fungi and produces various lytic enzymes, such as chitosanase, chitinase, protease, and gluconase. The aim of this study is to determine Bacillus spp. for lytic enzyme production and to evaluate the antifungal effects of the selected strains for biocontrol of mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi. A total of 92 endospore-forming bacterial isolates from the 24 fig orchard soil samples were screened for chitosanase production, and six best chitosanolytic isolates were selected to determine chitinase, protease, and N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase activity and molecularly identified. The antagonistic activities of six Bacillus strains against Aspergillus niger EGE-K-213, Aspergillus foetidus EGE-K-211, Aspergillus ochraceus EGE-K-217, and Fusarium solani KCTC 6328 were evaluated. Fungal spore germination inhibition and biomass inhibition activities were also measured against A. niger EGE-K-213. The results demonstrated that Bacillus mojavensis EGE-B-5.2i and Bacillus thuringiensis EGE-B-14.1i were more efficient antifungal agents against A. niger EGE-K-213. B. mojavensis EGE-B-5.2i has shown maximum inhibition of the biomass (30.4%), and B. thuringiensis EGE-B-14.1i has shown maximum inhibition of spore germination (33.1%) at 12 h. This is the first study reporting the potential of antagonist Bacillus strains as biocontrol agents against mycotoxigenic fungi of fig orchads.
KeywordsLytic enzymes Bacillus Biocontrol Mycotoxigenic fungi
This work was supported by the Research Project Fund of TUBITAK (104O339).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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