Protective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol Against Oxidative Stress Mediated by Arsenic-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats
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The present study reports beneficial effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) against arsenic (As)-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Rats were orally administered with sodium arsenite dissolved in distilled water (25 ppm, by oral gavage) for 8 weeks or HT (10 mg/kg b. wt.) in combination with As. Results showed increase in protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, while catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as GSH content were decreased after As exposure in rat brain. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed significant alteration in peak area values that also validated the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In addition, As exposure caused increase in protein expression of caspase-3 and Bax, while Bcl-2 expression was downregulated resulting in translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. Treatment of HT with As reversed protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and increased GSH content as well as catalase and SOD activities. Administration of HT also prevented translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria and increased mitochondria/cytosol ratio of cytochrome c. Hence, treatment of HT with As improved antioxidant system and efficiently lowered the generation of oxidative stress in rat brain.
KeywordsArsenic Hydroxytyrosol Oxidative stress FTIR Neurotoxicity
The financial assistance for the present work was provided by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India (grant No 58/51/2011-BMS), in the form of ad hoc scheme project sanctioned to Vijay Kumar. Authors also acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for providing research infrastructural facilities in the form of FIST program (grant no. SR/FST/LSI-534/2012).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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