Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 188, Issue 2, pp 498–513 | Cite as

Immunomodulatory Effects of Monascus spp.-Fermented Sacccharina japonica Extracts on the Cytokine Gene Expression of THP-1 Cells

  • Sharmin Suraiya
  • Won Je Jang
  • Hwa Jin Cho
  • Yu Bin Choi
  • Hae Dae Park
  • Jin-Man Kim
  • In-Soo KongEmail author


The immunomodulatory effects of Monascus-fermented Saccharina japonica extract on anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression of THP-1 cells were evaluated. Extracts of fermented samples showed higher phenolic, flavonoid, protein, and reducing sugar contents than unfermented one. Fermented samples were rich in many bioactive compounds determined by GC-MS analyses and showed cell viability greater than 85% in MTS assay. Regarding the anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory activities of the different samples, Q-PCR analyses revealed that IL-10 gene expression in THP-1 cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the SjMp or SjMk sample than those treated with the unfermented sample. Cells treated with the SjMp extract or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative gene expression of IL-4 cytokine than cells treated with SjMk or SjU extracts. The relative gene expression of IFN-α was higher in cells treated with SjMp followed by LPS, SjMk, and SjU. TGF-β expression was higher in LPS-stimulated cells followed by SjMk and other samples. Cells treated with SjMp exhibited significantly higher pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and NF-κB) cytokine gene expression than cells treated with SjU. These results revealed that extracts from S. japonica fermented with Monascus spp. regulate cytokine gene expression.

Graphical abstract


Fermentation Red mold Immunomodulation Q-PCR Relative gene expression Cytokine 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12010_2018_2930_MOESM1_ESM.docx (206 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 206 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharmin Suraiya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Won Je Jang
    • 1
  • Hwa Jin Cho
    • 1
  • Yu Bin Choi
    • 1
  • Hae Dae Park
    • 1
  • Jin-Man Kim
    • 3
  • In-Soo Kong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, College of Fisheries SciencePukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Fisheries and Marine BioscienceBangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology UniversityGopalganjBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyChonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea

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