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Contribution to the optimization of the autonomous photovoltaic solar systems with hybrid storage for loads with peak power with constraints of volume and loss of power supply probability

Abstract

The storage of energy is a fundamental aspect in the performance and the lifespan of the autonomous photovoltaic solar systems. The batteries with lead-acid are the most widespread technology of storage, because of their great availability, their low cost and their weak maintenance. They are generally failing because of certain defects such as: the stratification, sulphating, short-circuits, oxidation…These various defects strongly affect the lifespan of the batteries and thus the lifetime cost of the solar system. The appearance of these defects is for most of the time related to a non-optimal dimensioning of the system which does not take into account the starting peak power of certain electrical appliance. Indeed, the taking into account of these peak powers generate an oversizing of the batteries, consequently of the photovoltaic field and thus a very significant investment. To answer these problems, we proposed in this work a method of optimization of the autonomous solar systems by integrating ultracapacitors to meet the requirement in peak power. A program of optimization was developed in Matlab for this purpose, simulations were also done under Simulink to explore the advantages of the integration of ultracapacitors in the element of storage of an autonomous PV system with various profiles of load. The program of optimization has a step of time able to collect the fluctuations of the load and profiles of solar radiation and generates the best orientation according to the site so that the photovoltaic panel generates the maximum annual power. The program also makes it possible to determine the financial economy carried out by exploiting the Hybrid System of Storage with ultracapacitors and proposes various combinations of panels, batteries and ultracapacitors compared to LVD limit fixed with the lifetime cost and the LPSP corresponding. The management system of energy for the complete system was studied with imposed constraint the full charge of ultracapacitors between the peak powers.

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Abbreviations

Ecap :

Energy requirement of the supercondensator (J)

Va :

Maximum tension of operation of the supercondensator

Vb :

Minimal tension of operation of the supercondensator

N CapSer :

Number of series ultracapacitors

N CapPar :

Number of parallel ultracapacitors

C Cap :

Nominal ultracapacitor capacitance

C CapReq :

Required capacitance of the ultracapacitor bank

Vcap:

Ultracapacitor voltage

NBattPar:

Number of parallel batteries

NBattSer:

Number of series batteries

VSys:

System operating voltage

V Batt :

Battery rated voltage

Ah Cap :

Nominal battery capacity

V Batt :

Battery rated voltage

V Sys :

System operating voltage

E Batt :

Available battery energy

SOC Limit :

Battery SOC limit

T :

Optimisation horizon

PPV:

PV panel output power

P Storage :

Storage power

P Load :

Load power

Ni :

Number of component i

CIi :

Initial investment cost

CRi :

Replacement cost

CMRi :

Cost of maintenance and repair of component i

PWA:

Annual payment present worth factors

Ki :

Single payment present worth factors

yi :

Numbers of replacements of component i

Li :

Lifetime of component i

ir :

Real interest rate

R v :

Project’s lifetime

DOA:

Days of autonomy

LVD:

Low voltage disconnect

SOC:

State of charge

LPSP:

Loss of power supply probability

PV:

Photovoltaic

IEEE:

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

GSM:

Global System for Mobile Communication

ASECNA :

Agency of the safety of air navigation in Africa and Madagascar

VRLA :

Valve regulated lead acid

LCC :

Life cycle cost

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Correspondence to Guy Clarence Semassou.

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Semassou, G.C., Dai Tometin, A.D.D.V., Ahouansou, R. et al. Contribution to the optimization of the autonomous photovoltaic solar systems with hybrid storage for loads with peak power with constraints of volume and loss of power supply probability. Int J Interact Des Manuf (2020) doi:10.1007/s12008-020-00643-2

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Keywords

  • Optimization
  • Lifetime cost
  • PV solar system
  • Ultracapacitor