Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 285–292 | Cite as

Evaluation of surface activity of hot-dip galvanized steel after alkaline cleaning

  • Ville SaarimaaEmail author
  • Carl Lange
  • Teemu Paunikallio
  • Aaretti Kaleva
  • Juha-Pekka Nikkanen
  • Erkki Levänen
  • Pasi Väisänen
  • Antti Markkula


The surface activity of hot-dip galvanized steel was evaluated after alkaline cleaning by exposing the cleaned specimens in humid supercritical carbon dioxide, followed by extraction and quantification of the formed corrosion products. Different free alkalinities of the cleaning bath were studied to obtain information on the evolution of zinc surface activity at different levels of surface etching. Surface reactivity of uncleaned galvanized steel is restricted and local, with major contributions from grain boundaries and intermetallic particles. Formation of zinc corrosion products took place in uncleaned samples exclusively on and around these sites. Al2O3 removal by alkaline cleaning gradually increased the surface activity. The major increase in surface activity was achieved when increasing the free alkalinity from 0.5 to 4.0 mEq/L, which was shown by formation of zinc corrosion products within zinc grains. The surface activity was confirmed by applying a titanium hexafluoride pretreatment on the cleaned panels and measuring the lateral microscale uniformity of the formed layer. The uniformity increased when larger areas of galvanized steel became activated by alkaline cleaning. Reactivity of zinc is rather difficult to quantify when setting up an industrial cleaning sequence for galvanized steel. Controlled exposure of cleaned samples in humid supercritical carbon dioxide, followed by quantification of oxidized zinc, provides a straightforward method to evaluate zinc reactivity.


Zinc Surface activity Alkaline cleaning Supercritical carbon dioxide Cr-free pretreatment 



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Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Top Analytica OyTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Materials Science and Environmental EngineeringTampere UniversityTampereFinland
  3. 3.SSAB Europe OyHämeenlinnaFinland

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