Effect of aluminum hydroxide on the fireproofing properties of ammonium polyphosphate–pentaerythritol-based intumescent coating

  • Yu. M. EvtushenkoEmail author
  • Yu. A. Grigoriev
  • T. A. Rudakova
  • A. N. Ozerin


A fireproof composition based on ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol with a number of functional additives was developed and studied. The additives are able to form a protective char during fire exposure below the thermal decomposition temperature of the polymer composites. The decrease in the char formation temperature of the fire-protective coating provides a molar excess of ammonium polyphosphate with respect to the mole fractions of pentaerythritol and aluminum hydroxide. Introducing the latter in the composition of the flame-retardant coating also contributes to the decrease in the char formation temperature. The fire-protection coating can be used to protect various combustible materials, e.g., wood, laminates, plastics, etc.


Intumescent coating Ammonium polyphosphate Pentaerythritol Aluminum hydroxide Fire protection Char 



  1. 1.
    Nenachov, CA, Pimenova, VP, “Physicochemistry of Foaming Fireproof Coatings Based on Ammonium Polyphosphate.” Pozharovzrivobezopasnost [Fire Explos. Saf.], 19 (8) 11–58 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weil, ED, “Fire-Protective and Flame-Retardant Coatings. A State-of-the-Art Review.” J. Fire Sci., 29 (3) 259–296 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pavlovich, AV, Vladenkov, VN, Iziumsky, VN, Kilchitskaya, SL, “Fire-Resistant Intumescent Coatings.” Lakokrasotchnaya promishlennost [Paint Varn. Ind.], 5 22–27 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mariappan, T, “Recent Developments of Intumescent Fire Protection Coatings for Structural Steel: A Review.” J. Fire Sci., 34 (2) 120–163 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Puri, RG, Khanna, AS, “Intumescent Coatings: A Review on Recent Progress.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 14 (1) 1–20 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Griffin, GJ, “The Modeling of Heat Transfer Across Intumescent Polymer Coatings.” J. Fire Sci., 28 (3) 249–277 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Staggs, J, “Thermal Conductivity Estimates of Intumescent Chars by Direct Numerical Simulation.” Fire Saf., 45 (4) 228–237 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Staggs, J, Crewe, R, Butler, RA, “A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Intumescent Behaviour in Protective Coatings for Structural Steel.” Chem. Eng. Sci., 71 239–251 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schaumann, P, Tabeling, F, Weisheim, W, “Heating Behaviour of Intumescent Coatings in Steel Constractions—Advanced Numerical Simulations Taking the Foaming Process into Account.” Stahlbau, 83 (9) 646–651 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cirpici, BK, Wang, YC, Rogers, BD, et al., “A Theoretical Model for Quantifying Expantion of Intumescent Coating Under Different Heating Conditions.” Polym. Eng. Sci., 56 (7) 798–809 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao, K, Wu, S-RL, Wang, K-L, Yao, Z, “Kinetic Study on Surface Modification of Ammonium Polyphosphate with Melamine.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50 (14) 8402–8406 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qu, H, Hao, J, Wu, W, Zhao, X, Jiang, S, “Optimization of Sol–Gel Coatings on the Surface of Ammonium Polyphosphate and its Application in Epoxy Resin.” J. Fire Sci., 30 (4) 357–371 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qu, H, Wu, W, Hao, J, Wang, C, Xu, J, “Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Coating-Encapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate and Its Flame Retardancy and Water Resistance in Epoxy Resin.” Fire Mater., 38 (3) 312–322 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shao, ZB, Deng, C, Tan, YL, Chen, MJ, Chen, L, Wang, YZ, “Ammonium Polyphosphate Chemically Modified with Ethanolamine as an Efficient Intumescent Flame Retardant for Polypropylene.” J. Mater. Chem. A, 2 (34) 13955–13965 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shao, Z-B, Deng, C, Tan, Y, Chen, M-J, Chen, L, Wang, Y-Z, “Flame Retardation of Polypropylene via a Novel Intumescent Flame Retardant: Ethylenediamine-Modified Ammonium Polyphosphate.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 106 88–96 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zheng, Z, Qiang, L, Yang, T, Wang, B, Cui, X, Wang, H, “Preparation of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate with Carbon Source- and Blowing Agent-Containing Shell and Its Flame Retardance in Polypropylene.” J. Polym. Res., 21 (5) 1–15 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korotkov, A, “Melamin/Monoammonium Phosphate Complex as the Polyphosphate Substitute in Flame Retardant Coatings.” J. Fire Sci., 34 (2) 89–103 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fudang, S, Zhiming, D, Xiaomin, C, Linshuang, Z, Ye, Y, Linming, LI, “Experimental Study on Fires Extinguishing Properties of Melamine Phosphate Powders.” Proc. Eng., 84 535–542 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou, S, Song, L, Wang, Z, Hu, Y, Xing, W, “Flame Retardation and Char Formation Mechanism of Intumescent Flame Retarded Polypropylene Composites Containing Melamine Phosphate and Pentaerythritol Phosphate.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 93 (10) 1799–1806 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma, H, Fang, Z, “Synthesis and Carbonization Chemistry of a Phosphorous–Nitrogen Based Intumescent Flame Retardant.” Thermochim. Acta, 543 130–136 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dittrich, B, Wartig, K-A, Mülhaupt, R, et al., “Flame Retardancy Properties of Intumescent Ammonium Poly(phosphate) and Mineral Filler Magnesium Hydroxide in Combination with Graphene.” Polymers, 6 (11) 2875–2895 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dong, Y, Wang, G, Su, Q, “Influence of Nano-boron Nitride on Anti-aging Property of Waterborne Fire-Resistive Coatings.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (5) 805–815 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang, J, “The Protective Effects and Aging Process of the Topcoat of Intumescent Fire-Retardant Coatings Applied to the Steel Structures.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 13 (1) 143–157 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morys, M, Illerhaus, B, Sturm, H, et al., “Variation of Intumescent Coatings Revealing Different Modes of Action for Good Protection Performance.” Fire Technol., 53 (4) 1569–1587 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang, L, Hu, Y, Song, L, Yuen, RKK, “Investigation of Thermal and Combustion Properties for Intumescent Flame-Retardant Ethylene-Viny Acetate Composites Containing Ferrous Disulfide.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51 (46) 15082–15088 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dong, Y, Wang, G, Yang, J, “Influences of Silicone Emulsion on Fire Protection of Waterborne Intumescent Fire-Resistive Coating.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 11 (2) 231–237 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li, H, Hu, Z, Zhang, S, Gu, X, Wang, H, Jiang, P, Zhao, Q, “Effects of Titanium Dioxide on the Flammability and Char Formation of Water-Based Coatings Containing Intumescent Flame Retardants.” Prog. Org. Coat., 78 318–324 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Duquesne, S, Bachelet, P, Bellayer, S, Bourbigot, S, Mertens, W, “Influence of Inorganic Fillers on the Fire Protection of Intumescent Coatings.” J. Fire Sci., 31 (3) 258–275 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Puri, RG, Khanna, AS, “Effect of Cenospheres on the Char Formation and Fire Protective Performance of Water-Based Intumescent Coatings on Structural Steel.” Prog. Org. Coat., 92 8–15 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M, Ahmad, F, Megat-Yusoff, PSM, Aziz, H, “The Effect of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating.” Proc. Adv. Mater. Res., 970 328–331 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yew, MC, RamliSulong, NH, Yew, MK, Amalina, MA, Johan, MR, “Eggshells: A Novel Bio-Filler for Intumescent Flame-Retardant Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 81 116–124 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang, J, Wang, G, “Influences of Montmorillonite on Fire Protection, Water and Corrosion Resistance of Waterborne Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Steel Structure.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 239 177–184 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Han, Z, Fina, A, Malucelli, G, “Thermal Shielding Performances of Nano-structured Intumescent Coatings Containing Organo-Modified Layered Double Hydroxides.” Prog. Org. Coat., 78 504–510 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Qin, Z, Li, D, Li, Q, Yang, R, “Effect of Nano-aluminum Hydroxide on Mechanical Properties, Flame Retardancy and Combustion Behavior of Intumescent Flame Retarded Polypropylene.” Mater. Des., 89 988–995 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morys, M, Illerhaus, B, Sturm, H, et al., “Size is Not All That Matters: Residue Thickness and Protection Performance of Intumescent Coatings Made from Different Binders.” J. Fire Sci., 35 (4) 259–283 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rudakova, TA, Evtushenko, YM, Grigoriev, YA, et al., “Ways of Reducing the Foaming Temperature in the Ammonium Polyphosphate-Pentaerythritol System in Intumescent Systems.” Pozharovzrivobezopasnost [Fire Explos. Saf.], 3 24–29 (2015)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bourbigot, S, Le Bras, M, Delobel, R, “Carbonisation Mechanism Resulting from Intumescence Association with the Ammonium Polyphosphate-Pentaerythriol Fire Retardant System.” Carbon., 31 (8) 1219–1294 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bourbigot, S, Le Bras, M, Delobel, R, “Carbonisation Mechanism Resulting from Intumescence. Part II. Association with an Ethylene Terpolymer and the Ammonium Polyphosphate-Pentaerythriol Fire Retardant System.” Carbon, 33 (3) 283–294 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krilova, AY, “Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis Products.” Khimia Tveordogo Topliva [Solid Fuel Chem.], 48 (1) 23–37 (2014)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schulz, H, “Short History and Present Trends of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.” Appl. Catal. A Gen., 186 3–12 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bunker, BC, Tallant, DR, Balfe, CA, et al., “Structure of Phosphorus Oxynitride Glasses.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 70 (9) 675–681 (1987)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mianowsky, A, Radko, T, Siudyga, T, “The Reactivity of Cokes in Boudouard–Bell Reactions in the Context of an Ergun Model.” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 122 1013–1021 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Khalturinsky, NA, Rudakova, TA, “On the Mechanism of Formation of Fire-Resistant Intumescent Coatings.” Izvestia YuFU [The news of the Southern Federal University], 8 220–227 (2013)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Crupkin, VG, Mokhin, GN, Khalturinsky, NA, “Pulsing Modes of Formation of a Multilayer Structure on the Surface of Flame Retardant Intumescent Compositions.” Chimicheskaya Fisika [Chem. Phys.], 32 (7) 65–70 (2013)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evtushenko, YM, Grigoriev, YA, Rudakova, TA, “Oscillation of Thermal Oxidative Degradation of Intumescent Systems Based on Ammonium Polyphosphate and Pentaerythritol” Coll. articles. 19th int. seminar “New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials”, Pardubice, Czech Republic, April 20–22, 2016, pp. 41–46Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mingming, L, Jing, L, Yuanyuan, H, et al., “Inorganic Adhesives for Robust Superwetting Surfacies.” ACS Nano, 11 (1) 1113–1119 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Camino, G, Costa, L, Trossarelli, L, “Study of the Mechanism of Intumescence in Fire Retardant Polymers: Part V—Mechanism of Formation of Gaseous Products in the Thermal Degradation of Ammonium Polyphosphate.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 12 (3) 203–211 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of Russian Academy of Science (ISPM RUS)MoscowRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations