Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 135–145 | Cite as

Effect of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate on the durability and fire resistance of waterborne intumescent fire-retardant coatings

  • Zhitian Liu
  • Mengqin Dai
  • Qinghua Hu
  • Shi Liu
  • Xiang Gao
  • Fan Ren
  • Qi ZhangEmail author


Large-scale addition of hydrophilic solid filler (i.e., ammonium polyphosphate) into waterborne intumescent fire-retardant coatings can cause many problems such as poor compatibility, easy absorption of moisture, and poor durability. In this work, microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate with melamine formaldehyde resin (MFAPP) was prepared and applied in intumescent fire-retardant coatings to solve the problems mentioned. Due to the hydrophobicity of melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin, MFAPP exhibited better water resistance, thermal stability, and compatibility with polymer matrix, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size test, water solubility, water contact angle, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the MFAPP on durability and fire resistance of the fire-retardant coatings test were investigated by the static immersion test, fire resistance test, TGA, and SEM. Even immersed in distilled water for 12 h, the coatings containing MFAPP did not show obvious damage, indicating microencapsulation improved the water resistance of coatings. Furthermore, the fire-resistant time and thermal stability of the waterborne intumescent fire-retardant coatings were also improved remarkably by utilizing the microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate.


Microencapsulation Ammonium polyphosphate Intumescent fire-retardant coating Fire resistance Durability 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Hubei Province Education Department Youth Talent Program of Science and Technology Research (No. Q20161511), Hubei Province Youth Chenguang Program of Science and Technology (No. 2014.5), Applied Basic Research Programs of Wuhan (No. 2015010101010018), Wuhan Yellow Crane Program for Excellent Talents and Hubei Technology Innovation Major Project (2016AAA030), PetroChina Innovation Foundation (2015D-5006-0211), Wuhan Institute of Technology Science Foundation (No. K201470).


  1. 1.
    Aziz, H, Ahmad, F, “Effects From Nano-Titanium Oxide on the Thermal Resistance of an Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications.” Prog. Org. Coat., 101 431–439 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang, J, Song, WH, Zhang, M, Chen, Z, “Experimental Study of the Acid Corrosion Effects on an Intumescent Coating for Steel Elements.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 53 (28) 11249–11258 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Han, ZD, Fina, A, Malucelli, G, “Thermal Shielding Performances of Nano-structured Intumescent Coatings Containing Organo-Modified Layered Double Hydroxides.” Prog. Org. Coat., 78 504–510 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gardelle, B, Duquesne, S, Vandereecken, P, Bellayer, S, Bourbigot, S, “Resistance to Fire of Intumescent Silicone Based Coating: The Role of Organoclay.” Prog. Org. Coat., 76 1633–1641 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gardner, L, Baddoo, NR, “Fire Testing and Design of Stainless Steel Structures.” J. Constr. Steel. Res., 62 532–543 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weil, ED, “Fire-Protective and Flame-Retardant Coatings—A State-of-the-Art Review.” J. Fire Sci., 29 259–296 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nøgaard, KP, Dam-Johansen, K, Català, P, Kiil, S, “Investigation of Char Strength and Expansion Properties of an Intumescent Coating Exposed to Rapid Heating Rates.” Prog. Org. Coat., 76 1851–1857 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kahraman, HT, Gevgilili, H, Pehlivan, E, Kalyon, DM, “Development of an Epoxy Based Intumescent System Comprising of Nanoclays Blended with Appropriate Formulating Agents.” Prog. Org. Coat., 78 208–219 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yew, MC, Ramli Sulong, NH, Yew, MK, Amalina, MA, Johan, MR, “Eggshells: A Novel Bio-filler for Intumescent Flame-Retardant Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 81 116–124 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jimenez, M, Duquesne, S, Bourbigot, S, “Characterization of the Performance of an Intumescent Fire Protective Coating.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 201 979–987 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, J-B, Wang, G-J, “Influences of Montmorillonite on Fire Protection, Water and Corrosion Resistance of Waterborne Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Steel Structure.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 239 177–184 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Puri, RG, Khanna, AS, “Influence of Heat-Stable Filler on the Thermal Shielding Performance of Water-Based Intumescent Fire-Resistive Coating for Structural Steel Applications.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 14 (2) 323–331 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, Z-Y, Han, E-H, Ke, W, “Effect of Nanoparticles on the Improvement in Fireresistant and Anti-ageing Properties of Flame-Retardant Coating.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 200 5706–5716 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Puri, RG, Khanna, AS, “Intumescent Coatings: A review on Recent Progress.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 14 (1) 1–20 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li, H-F, Hu, Z-W, Zhang, S, Gu, XY, Wang, HJ, “Effects of Titanium Dioxide on the Flammability and Char Formation of Water-based Coatings Containing Intumescent Flame Retardants.” Prog. Org. Coat., 78 318–324 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, G-J, Yang, J-Y, “Thermal Degradation Study of Fire Resistive Coating Containing Melamine Polyphosphate and Dipentaerythritol.” Prog. Org. Coat., 72 605–611 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Han, ZD, Fina, A, Malucelli, G, “Testing Fire Protective Properties of Intumescent Coatings by In-line Temperature Measurements on a Cone Calorimeter.” Prog. Org. Coat., 69 475–480 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, L-J, Song, L, Jie, G-X, Tai, Q-L, Xing, W-Y, Hu, Y, “A New Intumescent Flame Retardant Containing Phosphorus and Nitrogen: Preparation, Thermal Properties and Application to UV Curable Coating.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 59–66 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang, G-J, Yang, J-Y, “Influence of Binder on Fire Protection and Anticorrosion Properties of Intumescent Fire Resistive Coating for Structure.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 204 1186–1192 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kurt, S, Uysal, B, Özcan, C, “Thermal Conductivity of Oriental Beech Impregnated with Fire Retardant.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 6 523–530 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arabasadi, Z, Khorasani, M, Akhlaghi, S, Fazilat, H, Gedde, UW, Hedenqvist, MS, Shiri, ME, “Prediction and Optimization of Fireproofing Properties of Intumescent Flame Retardant Coatings Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques.” Fire. Saf. J., 61 193–199 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu, Z-T, Dai, M-Q, Zhang, Y-F, Gao, X, Zhang, Q, “Preparation and Performances of Novel Waterborne Intumescent Fire Retardant Coatings.” Prog. Org. Coat., 95 100–106 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, Z-T, Dai, M-Q, Wang, C, Zhang, Q, Zhang, Y-F, Jin, B-Q, Gao, X, “Effects of the Addition Mode and Amount of Organic Montmorillonite in Soft-Core/Hard-Shell Emulsion on Fire Protection, Water Resistance and Stability of Fire Retardant Coating.” Prog. Org. Coat., 101 350–358 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bardon, J, Apaydin, K, Laachachi, A, Jimenez, M, Fouquet, T, Hilt, F, Bourbigot, S, Ruch, D, “Characterization of a Plasma Polymer Coating from an Organophosphorus Silane Deposited at Atmospheric Pressure for Fire-Retardant Purposes.” Prog. Org. Coat., 88 39–47 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feng, C-M, Liang, M-Y, Jiang, J-L, Huang, J-G, Liu, H-B, “The Synthesis and Fluorescence Quenching Properties of Pyrene—Labeled Silicone Polymers.” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 119 75–86 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, G-J, Yang, J-Y, “Influences of Binder on Fire Protection and Anticorrosion Properties of Intumescent Fire Resistive Coating for Steel Structure.” Surf. Coat. Technol., 204 1186–1192 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang, G-J, Yang, J-Y, “Influences of Glass Flakes on Fire Protection and Water Resistance of Waterborne Intumescent Fire Resistive Coating for Steel Structure.” Prog. Org. Coat., 70 150–156 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sun, L-S, Qu, Y-T, Li, S-X, “Co-microencapsulate of Ammonium Polyphosphate and Pentaerythritol and Kinetics of its Thermal Degradation.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 97 404–409 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Qin, Z-L, Li, D-H, Yang, R-J, “Study on Inorganic Modified Ammonium Polyphosphate with Precipitation Method and its Effect in Flame Retardant Polypropylene.” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 126 117–124 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shen, M-Y, Chen, W-J, Kuan, C-F, Kuan, H-C, Yang, J-M, Chiang, C-L, “Preparation, Characterization of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate and its Flame Retardancy in Polyurethane Composites.” Mater. Chem. Phys., 173 205–212 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, N, Mi, L, Wu, Y-X, Wang, X-Z, Fang, Q-H, “Enhanced Flame Retardancy of Natural Rubber Composite with Addition of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate and MCM-41 Fillers.” Fire Saf. J., 62 281–288 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang, W, Zhang, W, Zhang, S-F, Li, J-Z, “Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate with UMF and its Application in WPCs.” Constr. Build. Mater., 65 151–158 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu, L, Li, L, Ni, Y, “Effect of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate on Water Resistance of Water-based Intumescent Flame Retardation Coating.” J. Build. Mater., 13 (3) 367–370 (2010)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, BB, Qian, XD, Shi, YQ, Yu, B, Hong, NN, Song, L, Hu, Y, “Cyclodextrin Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate: Preparation and its Performance on the Thermal, Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer.” Compos. Part B-Eng., 69 22–30 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ullaha, S, Ahmad, F, Shariffa, AM, Bustama, MA, Gonfaa, G, Gillani, QF, “Effects of Ammonium Polyphosphate and Boric Acid on the Thermal Degradation of an Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating.” Prog. Org. Coat., 100 70–82 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang, N, Zhang, J, Fang, Q-H, Hui, D, “Influence of Mesoporous Fillers with PP-g-MA on Flammability and Tensile Behavior of Polypropylene Composites.” Compos. Part B-Eng., 44 467–471 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zheng, Z, Yan, J, Sun, H, Cheng, Z, Li, W, Wang, H, Cui, X, “Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate and its Synergistic Flame-Retarded Polyurethane Rigid Foams with Expandable Graphite.” Polym. Int., 63 84–92 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhitian Liu
    • 1
  • Mengqin Dai
    • 1
  • Qinghua Hu
    • 1
  • Shi Liu
    • 1
  • Xiang Gao
    • 1
  • Fan Ren
    • 2
  • Qi Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and EngineeringWuhan Institute of TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Wuhan Oxiran Special Chemical CompanyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations