Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 93–102 | Cite as

Controlled fertilizer release via tunable poly(vinyl alcohol)/ammonium sulfate-coated nonwoven materials

  • İlhan ÖzenEmail author
  • Gamze Okyay
  • Abdullah Ulaş


In this study, nonwoven fabrics were coated with two different ammonium sulfate fertilizer loadings (27.75% and 55.50%) by using two different poly(vinyl alcohol) types (high and low molecular weight). The poly(vinyl alcohol) coating amounts were adjusted to 60 and 120 g/m2. In order to study the effect of poly(vinyl alcohol) crosslinking on fertilizer release, a glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking agent was used in two different ratios (GA/PVOH ratio: 0.01 or 1). A concentration of 0.01 GA was insufficient for PVOH crosslinking, and water absorption capacity was reduced with increasing poly(vinyl alcohol) and glutaraldehyde loading amount. Fertilizer release was affected mostly by molecular weight and loading amounts of poly(vinyl alcohol) and fertilizer. It was possible to achieve controlled fertilizer release when the nonwoven fabric was coated at 120 g/m2 with high molecular weight poly(vinyl alcohol) containing 55.50% ammonium sulfate fertilizer in the absence of glutaraldehyde.


Poly(vinyl alcohol) Ammonium sulfate Glutaraldehyde Nonwoven fabric Surface coating Controlled release fertilizer 



The authors appreciate the contributions of nonwoven producer Hassan Tekstil, İstanbul, Turkey.


This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Project Number: 115M718

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.


  1. 1.
    Akelah, A, “Novel Utilizations of Conventional Agrochemicals by Controlled Release Formulations.” Mat. Sci. Eng. C-Biomim. Mat. Sens. & Sys., 4 (2) 83–98 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jarosiewicz, A, Tomaszewska, M, “Controlled-release NPK Fertilizer Encapsulated by Polymeric Membranes.” J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (2) 413–417 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jin, SP, Wang, YS, He, JF, Yang, Y, Yu, XH, Yue, GR, “Preparation and Properties of a Degradable Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Based on Starch with Water Retention, Amelioration of Soil, and Slow Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer.” J . Appl. Polym. Sci., 128 (1) 407–415 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang, YF, Liu, MZ, Ni, BL, Xie, LH, “Kappa-Carrageenan-Sodium Alginate Beads and Superabsorbent Coated Nitrogen Fertilizer with Slow-Release, Water-Retention, and Anticompaction Properties.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51 (3) 1413–1422 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yan, X, Jin, YJ, He, P, Liang, MZ, “Recent Advances on the Technologies to Increase Fertilizer Use Efficiency.” Agric. Sci. in China, 7 (4) 469–479 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    David, N, Hon, S, Clemson, SC, “Encapsulated Fertilizers and Pesticides and Process.” US Patent 5,679,129, 1997Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goertz, HM, Timmons, RJ, Johnson, WR, “Precoated Controlled Release Fertilizers and Processes for Their Preparation.” US Patent 6,0397,81A, 2000Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mikhail, P, “Controlled Release Product and Method for the Production Thereof.” US Patent 0,110,783A1, 2007Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pursell, T, Shirley, AR, Cochran, KD, Miller, JM, Holt, TG, Peeden, GS, “Controlled Release Fertilizer with Biopolymer Coating and Process for Making Same.” US Patent 9,266,787, 2016Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Devassine, M, Henry, F, Guerin, P, Briand, X, “Coating of Fertilizers by Degradable Polymers.” Int. J. Pharma, 242 (1–2) 399–404 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jintakanon, N, Opaprakasit, P, Petchsuk, A, Opaprakasit, M, “Controlled-Release Materials for Fertilizer Based on Lactic Acid Polymers.” Smart Mat, 55–57 905–908 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han, XZ, Chen, S, Hu, XG, “Controlled-Release Fertilizer Encapsulated by Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol Coating.” Desalination, 240 (1–3) 21–26 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lubkowski, K, Smorowska, A, Grzmil, B, Kozlowska, A, “Controlled-Release Fertilizer Prepared Using a Biodegradable Aliphatic Copolyester of Poly(Butylene Succinate) and Dimerized Fatty Acid.” J. Agric. Food Chem., 63 (10) 2597–2605 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, SG, Yang, YC, Gao, B, Wan, YS, Li, YC, Zhao, CH, “Bio-Based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.” J. Agric. Food Chem., 64 (28) 5692–5700 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jamnongkan, T, Kaewpirom, S, “Controlled-Release Fertilizer Based on Chitosan Hydrogel: Phosphorus Release Kinetics.” Sci J Ubonratchathani University, 1 (1) 43–50 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jamnongkan, T, Kaewpirom, S, “Potassium Release Kinetics and Water Retention of Controlled-Release Fertilizers Based on Chitosan Hydrogels.” J. Polym. Environ., 18 (3) 413–421 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhan, FL, Liu, MZ, Guo, MY, Wu, L, “Preparation of Superabsorbent Polymer with Slow-Release Phosphate Fertilizer.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 92 (5) 3417–3421 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Noppakundilograt, S, Pheatcharat, N, Kiatkamjornwong, S, “Multilayer-Coated NPK Compound Fertilizer Hydrogel with Controlled Nutrient Release and Water Absorbency.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 132 (2) 1–11 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lum, YH, Shaaban, A, Mohamad, N, Dimin, F, Yatim, NM, “Boric Acid Modified Starch Polyvinyl Alcohol Matrix for Slow Release Fertilizer.” E-Polymers, 16 (2) 151–158 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Damasceno, R, Roggia, I, Pereira, C, DE Sa, E, “Rhizobia Survival in Seeds Coated with Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Electrospun Nanofibres.” Can. J. Microbiol., 59 (11) 716–719 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hassounah, I, Shehata, N, Hudson, A, Orler, B, Meehan, K, “Characteristics and 3D Formation of PVA and PEO Electrospun Nanofibers with Embedded Urea.” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 131 (3) 39840 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morita, A, Takano, H, Oota, M, Yoneyama, T, “Nitrification and Denitrification in an Acidic Soil of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) Field Estimated by Delta N-15 Values of Leached Nitrogen from the Soil Columns Treated with Ammonium Nitrate in the Presence or Absence of a Nitrification Inhibitor and with Slow-Release Fertilizers.” Soil Sci & Plant Nutr, 48 (4) 585–593 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Drost, D, Koenig, R, Tindall, T, “Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Onion Yield Increased with a Polymer-Coated Nitrogen Source.” Hortscience, 37 (2) 338–342 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tian, XH, Saigusa, M, “Response of Tomato Plants to a New Application Method of Polyolefin-Coated Fertilizer.” Pedosphere, 15 (4) 491–498 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ahn, TB, Cho, SD, Yang, SC, “Stabilization of Soil Slope Using Geosynthetic Mulching Mat.” Geotex. & Geomembranes, 20 (2) 135–146 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rawal, A, Sawaswat, H, “Stabilisation of Soil Using Hybrid Needlepunched Nonwoven Geotextiles.” Geotex. & Geomembranes, 29 (2) 197–200 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rawal, A, Anandjiwala, RD, “Comparative Study Between Needlepunched Nonwoven Geotextile Structures Made from Flax and Polyester Fibres.” Geotex & Geomembranes, 25 (1) 61–65 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li, SX, Wang, ZH, Li, SQ, Gao, Y, Tian, XH, “Effect of Plastic Sheet Mulch, Wheat Straw Mulch, and Maize Growth on Water Loss by Evaporation in Dryland Areas of China.” Agric. Water Management, 116 (1) 39–49 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gan, YT, Kadambot, HMS, Turner, NC, Li, X, Niu, JY, Yang, C, Liu, LP, “Ridge-Furrow Mulching Systems-an Innovative Technique for Boosting Crop Productivity in Semiarid Rain-Fed Environments.” Advances in Agronomy, 118 429–476 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li, R, Hou, X, Jia, Z, Han, Q, Ren, X, Yang, B, “Effects on Soil Temperature, Moisture, and Maize Yield of Cultivation with Ridge and Furrow Mulching in the Rainfed Area of the Loess Plateau, China.” Agric. Water Management, 116 101–109 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sultana, S, Islam, MR, Dafader, NC, Haque, ME, Nagasawa, N, Tamada, M, “Effect of Mono-and Divalent Salts on the Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Hydrogel Under Irradiation Technique.” Int. J. Chem. Sci., 10 (2) 627–634 (2012)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gulrez, SKH, Al-Assaf, S, Phillips, GO, “Hydrogels: Methods of Preparation, Characterisation and Applications.” In: Carpi, A (ed.) Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering. InTech Publishers (2011)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mukerabigwi, JF, Wang, Q, Ma, XY, Liu, M, Lei, SJ, Wei, HT, Huang, XY, Cao, Y, “Urea Fertilizer Coated with Biodegradable Polymers and Diatomite for Slow Release and Water Retention.” J. Coat. Technol. Res., 12 (6) 1085–1094 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Im, O, Li, J, Wang, M, Zhang, LG, Keidar, M, “Biomimetic Three-Dimensional Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite and Magnetically Synthesized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Chitosan Nanocomposite for Bone Regeneration.” Int. J.  Nanomed., 7 2087–2099 (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ekinci, M, Ors, S, Sahin, U, Yildirim, E, Dursun, A, “Responses to the Irrigation Water Amount of Spinach Supplemented with Organic Amendment in Greenhouse Conditions.” Comm in Soil Sci & Plant Analy, 46 (3) 327–342 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Özen, İ, Okyay, G, Ulaş, A, “Coating of Nonwovens with Potassium Nitrate Containing Carboxymethyl Cellulose for Efficient Water and Fertilizer Management.” Cellulose, 25 (2) 1527–1538 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen, ZY, Hay, JN, Jenkins, MJ, “FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) on Crystallization.” Euro. Polym. J., 48 (9) 1586–1610 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mansur, HS, Sadahira, CM, Souza, AN, Mansur, AAP, “FT-IR Spectroscopy Characterization of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Hydrogel with Different Hydrolysis Degree and Chemically Crosslinked with Glutaraldehyde.” Mat Sci & Eng C-Biomim & Supramol Sys, 28 (4) 539–548 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang, T, Turhan, M, Gunasekaran, S, “Selected Properties of pH-Sensitive, Biodegradable Chitosan-Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Hydrogel.” Polym. Int., 53 (7) 911–918 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fortin, TJ, Shilling, JE, Tolbert, MA, “Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Low-Temperature Phase Behavior of Ammonium Sulfate.” J. Geophy. Res.-Atmosp., 107 (D10) AAC 4-1–AAC 4-9 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ammonium sulfate. ID=C7783202& amp;amp;Type=IR-SPEC Accessed: 03.01.2017
  42. 42.
    Singh, AN, Singh, S, Dubey, VK, “Immobilization of Procerain B, A Cysteine Endopeptidase, on Amberlite MB-150 Beads.” Plos One, 8 (6) 1–7 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li, B, Shan, CL, Zhou, Q, Fang, Y, Wang, YL, Xu, F, Han, LR, Ibrahim, M, Guo, LB, Xie, GL, Sun, GC, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Cross-Linked Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde.” Marine Drugs, 11 (5) 1534–1552 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pang, SC, Chin, SF, Tay, SH, Tchong, FM, “Starch-Maleate-Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogels with Controllable Swelling Behaviors.” Carb Polym, 84 (1) 424–429 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rudra, R, Kumar, V, Kundu, PP, “Acid Catalysed Cross-Linking of Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) by Glutaraldehyde: Effect of Crosslink Density on the Characteristics of PVA Membranes Used in Single Chambered Microbial Fuel Cells.” RSC Adv, 5 (101) 83436–83447 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    European Standard EN 13266. “Slow-Release Fertilizers-Determination of the Release of the Nutrients- Method for Coated Fertilizers.” Belgium, 2001.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Du, CW, Zhou, JM, Shaviv, A, “Release Characteristics of Nutrients from Polymer-Coated Compound Controlled Release Fertilizers.” J. Polym. Environ., 14 (3) 223–230 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Du, C, Zhou, J, Shaviv, A, Wang, H, “Mathematical Model for Potassium Release from Polymer-Coated Fertiliser.” Biosys. Eng., 88 (3) 395–400 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Du, C, Tang, D, Zhou, J, Wang, H, Shaviv, A, “Prediction of Nitrate Release from Polymer-Coated Fertilizers Using an Artificial Neural Network Model.” Biosys. Eng., 99 (4) 478–486 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trenkel, ME, Slow-and Controlled-Release and Stabilized Fertilizers: An Option for Enhancing Nutrient Efficiency in Agriculture. International Fertilizer Industry Association Publishers, Paris (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Coatings Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringErciyes UniversityMelikgaziTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgricultureErciyes UniversityMelikgaziTurkey

Personalised recommendations