Mentoring for Responsible Research: The Creation of a Curriculum for Faculty to Teach RCR in the Research Environment
- 133 Downloads
Despite more than 25 years of a requirement for training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), there is still little consensus about what such training should include, how it should be delivered, nor what constitutes “effectiveness” of such training. This lack of consensus on content, approaches and outcomes is evident in recent data showing high variability in the development and implementation of RCR instruction across universities and programs. If we accept that one of the primary aims of instruction in RCR/research ethics is “to foster a community of social responsibility” (Antes et al. 2009: 398), then it makes sense to consider the research environment itself—where learning one’s science happens where one also engages in social interaction around that science. In order to take the best advantage of that already existing/naturally occurring research environment, the authors, through a deliberative, collaborative, and integrative process, crafted a workshop curriculum meant to arm research faculty with concrete and specific tools to effectively introduce research ethics in the context of the research environment.
KeywordsResearch ethics Responsible conduct of research Curriculum development Mentoring
The project reported here was conducted with support from a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project titled “Integrating Ethics Education: Capacity-Building Workshops for Science and Engineering Faculty” (NSF Grant #1135358). The expert panelists who were part of the consensus conference included: John Ahearne (Sigma Xi), Melissa Anderson (University of Minnesota), Mark Appelbaum (UC San Diego), Yuchen Cao (UC San Diego), Michael Davis (Illinois Institute of Technology), Chris DeBoever (UC San Diego), Mark Frankel (AAAS), C.K. Gunsalus (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Elizabeth Heitman (Vanderbilt), Joseph Herkert (Arizona State University), Rachelle Hollander (National Academy of Engineering), Crane Huang (UC San Diego), Deborah Johnson (University of Virginia), Nancy Jones (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, DHHS), Michael Kalichman (UC San Diego), Nelson Kiang (Harvard Medical School), Philip Langlais (Old Dominion University), Francis Macrina (Virginia Commonwealth University), Brian Martinson (HealthPartners Research Foundation), Michael Mumford (University of Oklahoma), Ken Pimple (Indiana University), Dena Plemmons (UC San Diego), Patrick Wu (UC San Diego), and Guangming Zheng (UC San Diego).
- Anderson, M. S. (2011). Research misconduct and misbehavior. In T. Bertram Gallant (Ed.), Creating the ethical academy: A systems approach to understanding misconduct and empowering change in higher education (pp. 83–96). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Anderson, M. S., Horn, A. S., Risbey, K. R., Ronning, E. A., DeVries, R., & Martinson, B. C. (2007). What do mentoring and training in the responsible conduct of research have to do with scientists’ misbehavior? Findings from a national survey of NIH-funded scientists. Academic Medicine, 82(9), 853–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bebeau, M. J. (2002). Influencing the moral dimensions of professional practice: Implications for teaching and assessing for research integrity. In N. A. Steneck & M. H. Sheetz (Eds.), Proceedings of the first ORI research conference on research integrity (pp. 179–187). Washington, DC: Office of Research Integrity. http://www.ori.hhs.gov/documents/proceedings_rri.pdf.
- Bebeau, M. J., Pimple, K. D., Muskavitch, K. M. T., Borden, S. L., & Smith, D. H. (1995). Moral reasoning in scientific research: Cases for teaching and assessment (p. 83). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Faden, R. R., Kass, N. E., Klag, M. J., & Krag, S. S. (2002). On the importance of research ethics and mentoring. The American Journal of Bioethics 2(4), 50–51. The MIT Press. Retrieved January 16, 2017, from Project MUSE database.Google Scholar
- Heitman, E., & Petty, J. (2010). Preparing students to navigate cross-national differences in the research environment. In M. S. Anderson & N. H. Steneck (Eds.), International research collaborations: Much to be gained, many ways to get in trouble (pp. 201–214). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Heitman, E., Salis, P. J., & Bulger, R. E. (2001). Teaching ethics in biomedical science: Effects on moral reasoning skills. In Proceedings of the first ORI research conference on research integrity (pp. 195–202).Google Scholar
- Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2012). Designing effective instruction (7th ed.). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
- NIFA/USDA. (2013). Responsible and ethical conduct of research. https://nifa.usda.gov/responsible-and-ethical-conduct-research.
- NIH. (1989). Requirement for programs on the responsible conduct of research in national research service award institutional training programs. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, 18(45), 1. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/historical/1989_12_22_Vol_18_No_45.pdf.
- NIH. (1992). Reminder and update: Requirement for instruction in the responsible conduct of research in National Research Service Award institutional training grants. NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, 21(43). http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not92-236.html.
- NIH. (2009). Update on the requirement for instruction in the responsible conduct of research. Release Date: November 24, 2009. NOTICE: OD-10-019. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-10-019.html.
- NSF. (2009). RCR frequently asked questions. https://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/rcr/rcrfaqs.jsp.
- Resnik, D. B., & Dinse, G. E. (2012). Do U.S. research institutions meet or exceed federal requirements for instruction in responsible conduct of research? A national survey. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 87(9), 1237–1242. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318260fe5c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soto, V. J. (2013). Which instructional design models are educators using to design virtual world instruction? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(3), 364–375.Google Scholar
- Swazey, J. P., & Anderson, M. S. (1996). Mentors, advisors, and role models in graduate and professional education. Washington, DC: Association of Academic Health Centers.Google Scholar
- Watkins, D. A., & Biggs, J. B. (Eds.). (1996). The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (p. 287). Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
- Wenger, E., McDermott, R., & Snyder, W. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Brighton: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar