Advertisement

Influence of Inlet Drying Air Temperature and Milk Flow Rate on the Physical, Optical and Thermal Properties of Spray-Dried Camel Milk Powders

  • Jackline Akinyi OgollaEmail author
  • Boris Kulig
  • Liliana Bădulescu
  • Michael Wandayi Okoth
  • Günter Esper
  • Jutta Breitenbach
  • Oliver Hensel
  • Barbara Sturm
Original Paper

Abstract

The influence of milk flow rate and inlet drying air temperature on the physical, optical and thermal properties of laboratory spray-dried camel milk powders is investigated. The physical, thermal and optical properties of laboratory spray-dried camel milk powders at three inlet drying air temperatures (110, 120 and 130 °C) and two milk flow rates (166 and 248 cm3/h) were evaluated. These properties are fundamental to understanding the quality, stability, final application and portability of the milk powders. Following this, the results were compared to commercial milk powder (CMM). Specifically, we evaluated the influence of the inlet drying air temperatures and feed rates on the reconstitution properties, particle properties, bulk, colour and thermal properties. Using response surface methodology (RSM), the findings indicated that the inlet drying air temperatures significantly influenced moisture content, and the L* a* b* colour properties (p < 0.0001) of the powders. However, the bulk and reconstitution properties were significantly influenced by the milk flow rate (p < 0.0001). The thermograms of all the milk powders had three endothermic peaks and two shifts. The onset of the glass transition increased in temperature with decreasing moisture content of the powders varying from 37.49 to 44.21 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the laboratory spray dried powders were hollow and collapsed compared with the commercial samples which were spherical and rough with small cracks, dents and pores. The results demonstrated that both the inlet drying air temperature and the milk flow rate influenced the thermal, optical and physical properties of laboratory spray-dried powders.

Keywords

Camel milk powder Spray drying Physical properties Colour properties Thermal properties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author, Jackline Akinyi Ogolla would wish to acknowledge Katholische Akademische Ausländer-Dienst (KAAD) for her research stay in Germany. This study is part of Global food supply (GlobE) project – RELOAD (FKZ 031A247 A) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the RE4Foods project (EP/L002531/1) funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), UK. The authors gratefully acknowledge their financial contributions. The authors further wish to thank Dr. Helen McKee for proofreading the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11947_2019_2243_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 20 kb)

References

  1. Abu-Lehia, I. H., Al-Mohizea, I. S., & El-Behry, M. (1989). Studies on the production of ice cream from camel milk products. The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 44, 31–34.Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal, R. P., Jain, S., Shah, S., Chopra, A., & Agarwal, V. (2011). Effect of camel milk on glycemic control and insulin requirement in patients with type 1 diabetes: 2-years randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(10), 1048–1052.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Saadi, J., & Deeth, H. C. (2008). Cross-linking of proteins and other changes in UHT milk during storage at different temperatures. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 63(3), 93–99.Google Scholar
  4. Anglea, S. A., Karathanos, V., & Karel, M. (1993). Low-temperature transitions in fresh and osmotically dehydrated plant materials. Biotechnology Progress, 9(2), 204–209.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bp00020a014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bansal, V., Sharma, H. K., & Nanda, V. (2014). Optimisation of spray drying process parameters for low-fat honey-based milk powder with antioxidant activity. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(4), 1196–1202.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V., Enrique Ortega-Rivas, Pablo Juliano, and Hong Yan. 2005. Food powders: physical properties, processing, and functionality. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124155, 1, 1, 211, 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benkerroum, N., Mekkaoui, M., Bennani, N., & Hidane, K. (2004). Antimicrobial activity of camel’s milk against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 57(1). Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111)), 39–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2004.00127.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birchal, V. S., Laura Passos, M., Wildhagen, G. R. S., & Mujumdar, A. S. (2005). Effect of spray-dryer operating variables on the whole milk powder quality. Drying Technology, 23(3), 611–636.  https://doi.org/10.1081/DRT-200054153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruns, R. E., Scarminio, I. S., & de Barros Neto, B. (2006). Statistical design--chemometrics, 25.Google Scholar
  10. Chegini, G., & Taheri, M. (2013). Whey powder: process technology and physical properties: a review. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 13(10), 1377–1387.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.13.10.1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daza, L. D., Fujita, A., Fávaro-Trindade, C. S., Rodrigues-Ract, J. N., Granato, D., & Genovese, M. I. (2016). Effect of spray drying conditions on the physical properties of Cagaita (Eugenia Dysenterica DC.) fruit extracts. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 97, 20–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2015.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Di Renzo, G. C., Altieri, G., & Genovese, F. (2013). donkey milk powder production and properties compared to other milk powders. Dairy Science & Technology, 93(4-5), 551–564.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-013-0108-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El Zubeir, I. E. M., & Jabreel, S. O. (2008). Fresh cheese from camel milk coagulated with Camifloc. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 61(1), 90–95.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.2008.00360.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elagamy, E. I. (2000). Effect of heat treatment on camel milk proteins with respect to antimicrobial factors: a comparison with cows’ and buffalo milk proteins. Food Chemistry, 68(2). Elsevier), 227–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00199-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Agamy, E. I. (2007). The challenge of cow milk protein allergy. Small Ruminant Research, 68(1), 64–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elayan, A. A., Sulieman, A. M. E., & Saleh, F. A. (2008). The hypocholesterolemic effect of Gariss and Gariss containing bifidobacteria in rats fed on a cholesterol-enriched diet. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 3(1), 43–47.  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajb.2008.43.47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El-Hadi, S., Moneim, A., Ilayan, A. A., & El Faki, A. E.-A. (2006). Chemical and microbiological quality of Garris, Sudanese fermented camel’s milk product. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41(3), 321–328.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01070.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farah, Z. (1996). Camel milk: properties and products. Camel milk properties and products. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in technology and management.Google Scholar
  19. Farah, Z., Streiff, T., & Bachmann, M. R. M. R. (1989). Manufacture and characterization of camel milk butter. Milchwissenschaft, 44(7). Volkswirtschaftlicher Verlag, etc.), 412–414.Google Scholar
  20. Farah, Z., Streiff, T., & Bachmann, M. R. (1990). Short communication: preparation and consumer acceptability tests of fermented camel milk in Kenya. Journal of Dairy Research, 57(2). Cambridge University Press), 281–283.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202990002690X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferreira, S. L. C. L. C., Bruns, R. E. E., Ferreira, H. S. S., Matos, G. D. D., David, J. M. M., Brandão, G. C. C., Da Silva, E. G. P. G. P., et al. (2007). Box-Behnken design: an alternative for the optimization of analytical methods. Analytica Chimica Acta, 597(2), 179–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.07.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fitzpatrick, J. J., Iqbal, T., Delaney, C., Twomey, T., & Keogh, M. K. (2004). Effect of powder properties and storage conditions on the flowability of milk powders with different fat contents. Journal of Food Engineering, 64(4), 435–444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fyfe, K., Kravchuk, O., Nguyen, A. V., Deeth, H., & Bhandari, B. (2011). Influence of dryer type on surface characteristics of milk powders. Drying Technology, 29(7), 758–769.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2010.538481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goula, A. M., & Adamopoulos, K. G. (2008). Effect of maltodextrin addition during spray drying of tomato pulp in dehumidified air: II. Powder properties. Drying Technology, 26(6), 726–737.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930802046377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haddadin, M. S. Y., Gammoh, S. I., & Robinson, R. K. (2008). Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of camel milk in Jordan. Journal of Dairy Research, 75(01), 8–12.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029907002750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hashim, I. B., Khalil, A. H., & Habib, H. (2009). Quality and acceptability of a set-type yogurt made from camel Milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(3), 857–862.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassan, H. M., & Mumford, C. J. (1993). Mechanisms of drying of skin-forming materials.III. Droplets of natural products. Drying Technology, 11(7), 1765–1782.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939308916927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hu, Z., Cai, M., & Liang, H. H. (2008). Desirability function approach for the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of saikosaponins from Radix Bupleuri. Separation and Purification Technology, 61(3), 266–275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2007.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Inayat, S., Arain, M. A., Kahaskheli, M., & Malik, A. H. (2003). Study on the effect of processing on the chemical quality of cheese made from camel milk. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2(2), 102–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Islam, M. A., Alam, M. R., & Obaidullah, H. M. (2012). Multiresponse optimization based on statistical response surface methodology and desirability function for the production of particleboard. Composites Part B Engineering, 43(3), 861–868.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.11.033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jinapong, N., Suphantharika, M., & Jamnong, P. (2008). Production of instant soymilk powders by ultrafiltration, spray drying and fluidized bed agglomeration. Journal of Food Engineering, 84(2), 194–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.04.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kelly, A.L., O’Connell, J.E., & Fox, P.F. (2003). Manufacture and properties of milk powders. In: Fox, P.F., McSweeney, P.L.H. (eds) Advanced Dairy Chemistry—1 Proteins. Boston, MA: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8602-3_29.
  33. Khaskheli, M., Arain, M. A., Chaudhry, S., Soomro, A. H., & Qureshi, T. A. (2005). Physico-chemical quality of camel milk. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences, 1(2), 164–166.Google Scholar
  34. Kherouatou, N., Nasri, M., Attia, H., Frederico, V., Lafise, J., Taniwaki, I. T. A. L., Marta, H., & Terra, N. (2003). A study of the dromedary milk casein micelle and its changes during acidification. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 6, 237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2000141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim, E. H.-J., Chen, X. D., & Pearce, D. (2002). Surface characterization of four industrial spray-dried dairy powders in relation to chemical composition, structure and wetting property. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 26(3), 197–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(01)00334-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim, E. H.-J., Chen, X. D., & Pearce, D. (2005). Effect of surface composition on the flowability of industrial spray-dried dairy powders. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 46(3), 182–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2005.11.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, E. H.-J., Chen, X. D., & Pearce, D. (2009). Surface composition of industrial spray-dried milk powders. 2. Effects of spray drying conditions on the surface composition. Journal of Food Engineering, 94(2), 169–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.10.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koç, B., Sakin-YIlmazer, M., Kaymak-Ertekin, F., & BalkIr, P. (2014). Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(7), 1377–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0653-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Konuspayeva, G., Faye, B., & Loiseau, G. (2009). The composition of camel milk: a meta-analysis of the literature data. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22(2), 95–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kurozawa, L. E., Park, K. J., & Hubinger, M. D. (2009). Effect of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties of a spray dried chicken meat protein hydrolysate. Journal of Food Engineering, 94(3–4), 326–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.03.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laleye, L. C., Jobe, B., & Wasesa, A. A. H. (2008). Comparative study on heat stability and functionality of camel and bovine milk whey proteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(12), 4527–4534.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mehaia, M. A. (2006). Manufacture of fresh soft white cheese (Domiati type) from dromedary camel’s milk using ultrafiltration process. Journal of Food Technology, 4(3), 206–212.Google Scholar
  43. Mujumdar, A. S., Huang, L.-X., & Chen, X. D. (2010). An overview of the recent advances in spray-drying. Dairy Science &Technology, 90(2–3), 211–224.  https://doi.org/10.1051/dst/2010015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nijdam, J. J., & Langrish, T. A. G. (2005). An investigation of milk powders produced by a laboratory-scale spray dryer. Drying Technology, 23(5), 1043–1056.  https://doi.org/10.1081/DRT-200060208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nijdam, J. J., & Langrish, T. A. G. (2006). The effect of surface composition on the functional properties of milk powders. Journal of Food Engineering, 77(4), 919–925.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.08.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nollet, L. M. L., Toldrá, F., & Francis Group. (2010). Sensory analysis of foods of animal origin. Boca Raton: CRC press.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b10822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ogolla, J. A., Dede, C., Okoth, M. W., Hensel, O., & Sturm, B. (2017). Strategies and technologies for camel milk preservation and utilization of non-marketed milk in arid and semi-arid areas. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal., 82(2-4), 144–167.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00128325.2017.1363686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oldfield, D., & Singh, H. (2005). Functional properties of milk powders. In In food science and technology (Vol. 146, p. 365). New York-Marcel: Dekker.Google Scholar
  49. Pisecky, J. (2012). Handbook of milk powder manufacture. Edited by Vagn Westergaard and Ejnar Refstrup. GEA Process Engineering A/S (GEA Niro). Second Edi.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-908517-43-2.
  50. Quana, S., Tsuda, H., & Miyamoto, T. (2008). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus 130B4 from camel milk in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88(15), 2688–2692.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rahman, M. S. (2006). State diagram of foods: its potential use in food processing and product stability. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(17), 129–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rahman, M. S. (2009). Food stability beyond water activity and glass transtion: macro-micro region concept in the state diagram. International Journal of Food Properties, 12(4), 726–740.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10942910802628107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rahman, M. S., Al-Hakmani, H., Al-Alawi, A., & Al-Marhubi, I. (2012). Thermal characteristics of freeze-dried camel milk and its major components. Thermochimica Acta, 549, 116–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2012.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reddy, R. S., Ramachandra, C. T., Hiregoudar, S., Nidoni, U., Ram, J., & Kammar, M. (2014). Influence of processing conditions on functional and reconstitution properties of milk powder made from Osmanabadi goat milk by spray drying. Small Ruminant Research, 119(1–3), 130–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.01.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Roos, Y. H. (2010). Glass transition temperature and its relevance in food processing. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology - (New in 2010), 1(1), 469–496.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.102308.124139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rüegg, M., & Farah, Z. (1991). Melting curves of camel milk fat. Milchwissenschaft - Milk Science International, 46(5), 361–362.Google Scholar
  57. Santhalakshmy, S., Bosco, S. J. D., Francis, S., & Sabeena, M. (2015). Effect of inlet temperature on physicochemical properties of spray-dried Jamun fruit juice powder. Powder Technology, 274, 37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2015.01.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schuck, P. (2011). Dehydrated dairy products | milk powder: physical and functional properties of milk powders. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (pp. 117–124). New York City: Elsevier.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374407-4.00122-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schuck, P., Dolivet, D., & Jeantet, R. (2012). Analytical methods for food and dairy powder. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sharma, A., Jana, A. H., & Chavan, R. S. (2012). Functionality of milk powders and milk-based powders for end use applications-a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11(5), 518–528.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00199.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simpson, B. K., Nollet, L. M. L., Toldrá, F., Benjakul, S., Paliyath, G., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Food biochemistry and food processing. Second: JohnWiley & Sons, Inc..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Singh, M. B., Fotedar, R., & Lakshminarayana, J. (2008). Camel milk consumption pattern and its association with diabetes among Raika community of Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. Ethno-Medicine, 2(2), 103–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sturm, B., Hofacker, W., & Hensel, O. (2012). Optimizing the drying parameters for hot air dried apples. Drying Technology, 30(14), 1570–1582.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2012.698439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sulieman, A. M. E., Elamin, O. M., Elkhalifa, E. A., & Laleye, L. (2014). Comparison of physicochemical properties of spray-dried camel’s milk and cow’s milk powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 4(1), 15–19.  https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20140401.03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tamine, A. Y. (2009). Dairy powders and concentrated products. Ayr, UK: A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tonon, R. V., Brabet, C., & Hubinger, M. D. (2008). Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of acai (Euterpe Oleraceae Mart.) powder produced by spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 88(3), 411–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.02.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tuohy, J. J. (1989). Some physical properties of milk powders. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology, 13(2), 141–152.Google Scholar
  68. Walstra, P., Wouters, J. T. M., & Geurts, T. J. (2006). Dairy science and technology second edition. Food Science and Technology. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  69. Westergaard, V. (2004). Milk powder technology evaporation and spray drying GEA process engineering engineering for a better world preface to fifth edition.Google Scholar
  70. Yagil, R., Saran, A., & Etzion, Z. (1984). Camels’ milk: for drinking only? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part A: Physiology, 78(2), 263–266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(84)90143-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yolmeh, M., Habibi Najafi, M. B., & Farhoosh, R. (2014). Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM). Food Chemistry, 155, 319–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.059.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Zbikowska, A., & Zbikowski, Z. (2006). Stability of milk concentrates in hot coffee. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15/56(S1), 253–258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jackline Akinyi Ogolla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Boris Kulig
    • 1
  • Liliana Bădulescu
    • 2
  • Michael Wandayi Okoth
    • 3
  • Günter Esper
    • 4
  • Jutta Breitenbach
    • 4
  • Oliver Hensel
    • 1
  • Barbara Sturm
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Organic Agriculture. Department of Agricultural & Biosystems EngineeringUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Horticulture. Department of Bioengineering of Horti-Viticultural SystemUniversity of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of BucharestBucharestRomania
  3. 3.College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. Department of Food Science, Nutrition and TechnologyUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya
  4. 4.Department of Food TechnologyFulda University of Applied SciencesFuldaGermany
  5. 5.School of Natural and Environmental SciencesNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations