Browning Control Using Cyclodextrins in High Pressure–Treated Apple Juice
- 6 Downloads
Browning control in apple juice has been one of the highest challenges within food technology. High pressure processing (HPP) ensures quality and safety in apple juice during its shelf life, but enzymatic browning may be increased. Hence, the effects of addition of α- (10/30/40 mM) and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) (5/10/15 mM) during apple juicing and HPP treatment (0/300/400/500 MPa; 5 min, 22 °C) were studied on the browning index (BI) and phenolic compounds degradation at 22 °C. In general, apple juice browning was well fitted with a first-order kinetic. Contrary, phenolic degradation was better fitted with a zero-order kinetic. The highest HPP treatment induced the highest apple juice browning, while it was minimum in untreated samples. Nevertheless, 30 mM α-CD addition to the apple juice may reduce the related HPP browning. Chlorogenic acid and (−)epicatechin showed the highest degradation rates related to browning, while phloridzin did not show high changes after juicing. A β-CD concentration of 15 mM was needed to prevent browning of the 500 MPa-treated juice. Consequently, the use of α- and β-CDs may control enzymatic browning caused by HPP through the quick encapsulation of the phenolic compounds.
KeywordsEncapsulation Quality Non-thermal processing Phenolic compounds Apple juice
The authors are grateful to the Institute of Plant Biotechnology of the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena for the use of the HPP instrument. The technical assistance from M. Otón is also appreciated.
A doctoral grant (grant reference 291212) was given to Marianela Hazel Álvarez–Hernández by the CONACYT (National Council of Science and Technology, Mexico).
- AIJN. (2014). Liquid fruit 2014. Market Report of the European Fruit Juice Association.Google Scholar
- Chakraborty, S., Kaushik, N., Rao, P. S., & Mishra, H. N. (2014). High-pressure inactivation of enzymes: a review on its recent applications on fruit purees and juices. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 13(4), 578-596. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EC. (2008a). Commission decision of 26 May 2008 authorising the placing on the market of alpha-cyclodextrin as a novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) no 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council. 146, 12-15.Google Scholar
- EC. (2008b). Regulation (EC) no 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. Official Journal of the European Union, 354, 16-33.Google Scholar
- EFSA. (2012). Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha cyclodextrin and reduction of post prandial glycaemic responses (ID 2926, further assessment) pursuant to article 13(1) of regulation (EC) no 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 10(6), 2713. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Falguera, V., Gatius, F., Ibarz, A., & Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2013). Kinetic and multivariate analysis of polyphenol oxidase inactivation by high pressure and temperature processing in apple juices made from six different varieties. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(9), 2342-2352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0874-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Février, H., Le Quéré, J.-. M., Le Bail, G., & Guyot, S. (2017). Polyphenol profile, PPO activity and pH variation in relation to colour changes in a series of red-fleshed apple juices. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 85(Part B), 353-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.11.006.
- Formica-Oliveira, A. C., Martínez-Hernández, G. B., Díaz-López, V., Otón, M., Artés, F., & Artés-Hernández, F. (2016). High hydrostatic pressure treatments for keeping quality of orange coloured vegetables smoothies. Paper presented at the VIII International Postharvest Symposium, Cartagena, 21-24 June 2016.Google Scholar
- López-Nicolás, J. M., Núñez-Delicado, E., Sánchez-Ferrer, A., & García-Carmona, F. (2007a). Kinetic model of apple juice enzymatic browning in the presence of cyclodextrins: the use of maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin as secondary antioxidant. Food Chemistry, 101(3), 1164-1171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- López-Nicolás, J. M., Pérez-López, A. J., Carbonell-Barrachina, A., & García-Carmona, F. (2007b). Kinetic study of the activation of banana juice enzymatic browning by the addition of maltosyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(23), 9655-9662. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0713399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ludikhuyze, L., Van Loey, A., Indrawati, Denys, S., & Hendrickx, M. (2002). Effects of high pressure on enzymes related to food quality. In M. Hendrickx, & D. Knorr (Eds.), Ultra high pressure treatments of foods (pp. 115-166). New York: Kluwer Academic Plenum Publisher.Google Scholar
- Palou, E., López-Malo, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Welti-Chanes, J., & Swanson, B. G. (1999). Polyphenoloxidase activity and color of blanched and high hydrostatic pressure treated banana puree. Journal of Food Science, 64(1), 42-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1999.tb09857.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Queiroz, C., Moreira, C. F. F., Lavinas, F. C., Lopes, M. L. M., Fialho, E., & Valente-Mesquita, V. L. (2010). Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice. High Pressure Research, 30(4), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957959.2010.530598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schempp, H., Christof, S., Mayr, U., & Treutter, D. (2016). Phenolic compounds in juices of apple cultivars and their relation to antioxidant activity. [antioxidant; apple juice; phenolic compounds; OH radical; superoxide anion radical; ABTS; chlorogenic acid; catechin; procyanidin; phenolic acid; phloridzin]. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 89, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.5073/jabfq.2016.089.002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shao, P., Zhang, J., Fang, Z., & Sun, P. (2014). Complexing of chlorogenic acid with β-cyclodextrins: Inclusion effects, antioxidative properties and potential application in grape juice. Food Hydrocolloids, 41(Supplement C), 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soliva-Fortuny, R. C., Grigelmo-Miguel, N., Odriozola-Serrano, I., Gorinstein, S., & Martín-Belloso, O. (2001). Browning evaluation of ready-to-eat apples as affected by modified atmosphere packaging. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(8), 3685-3690. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010190c.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- USDA. (2013). Most commonly consumed fruits among U.S. consumers. In E. R. Service (Ed.).Google Scholar