Effect of the Compositional Factors and Processing Conditions on the Creaming Reaction During Process Cheese Manufacturing
- 182 Downloads
Selected influencing factors in processed cheese making (protein and fat content, fat globule size, and rework addition) affecting the physical changes known as “creaming” were investigated for their effect on this multistage structure formation reaction. The creaming curve (viscosity vs. time) shows four typical stages: an initiation phase, a first exponential stage, a plateau, and a second exponential phase. Increasing the protein content from 10 to 17% (w/w) accelerated the reaction. Light microscopy showed that the fat content (0–20%) affected the shape of the creaming curve as well and it was shown that a fat level of 15–20% is required for the characteristic creaming curve to occur. Moreover, modifications in the initial milkfat globule size (3.7 μm down to 1.1 μm) by means of upstream homogenization (0–250/50 bar) accelerated the exponential phase and modified the shape of the creaming curve, shortening the initiation and plateau phases. The reaction started earlier with decreasing incoming fat globule size, and the slope was steeper. When fat was present in the system, it was not only the content, but the milkfat globule size which dictates the viscosity change and shape of the curve. The addition of rework dramatically affects the structure formation process, rework probably acting as a catalyst accelerating the reaction. However, protein polymerization was found to be constant during the entire course of the reaction suggesting that weaker physical bonds are responsible for the structuring of the matrix.
KeywordsMultistage structure formation Creaming reaction Processed cheese Emulsion Protein network
The authors would like to thank Hochland AG, Heimenkirch, Germany, for the financial and technical support to parts of this study.
- Berger, W., Klostermeyer, H., Merkenich, K., & Uhlmann, G. (1995). Die Schmelzkäseherstellung. Heidelberg: Brausdruck GmbH.Google Scholar
- Caric, M., Gantar, M., & Kalab, M. (1985). Effects of emulsifiying agents on the microstructure and other characteristics of process cheese - a review. Food Microstructure, 4, 297–312.Google Scholar
- Chambre, M., & Daurelles, J. (2000). Processed cheese. In A. Eck & J.-C. Gillis (Eds.), Cheesemaking (pp. 641–657). Paris: Technique et Documentation.Google Scholar
- Fox, P. F., Guinee, T. P., Cogan, T. M., & Mc Sweeney, P. L. H. (2000). Processed cheese and substitute or imitation cheese products. Fundamentals of cheese science (pp. 429–451). Gaithersburg: Aspen Publ., Inc.Google Scholar
- Fu, W., Watanabe, Y., Satoh, H., Inoue, K., Moriguchi, N., Fusa, K., Yanagisawa, Y., Mutoh, T., & Nakamura, T. (2018b). Effects of emulsifying conditions on creaming effect, mechanical properties and microstructure of processed cheese using a rapid visco-analyzer. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 82(3), 476–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guinee, T. P. (2003). The role of protein in cheese and cheese products. In P. F. Fox & P. L. H. McSweeney (Eds.), Advanced dairy chemistry, vol. 1, proteins, part B (pp. 1029–1174). New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ.Google Scholar
- Guinee, T. P. (2009). The role of dairy ingredients in processed cheese products. In: M. Corredig (ed.), Dairy-derived ingredients: food and nutraceutical uses (Chapter 20, 507–538). Woodhead Publishing Ltd., UK.Google Scholar
- Guinee, T. P., Caric, M., & Kalab, M. (2004). Pasteurized processed cheese and substitute/imitation cheese products. In P. F. Fox (Ed.), Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology (pp. 349–394). Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Heertje, I. (1993). Structure and function of food products: a review. Food Structure, 12, 343–364.Google Scholar
- Henle, T., Schwarzenbolz, U., & Klostermeyer, H. (1996). Irreversible crosslinking of casein during storage of UHT-treated skim milk. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Bulletin, 9602, 290–299.Google Scholar
- Kalab, M., Yun, J., & Yiu, S. H. (1987). Textural properties and microstructure of process cheese food rework. Food Microstructure, 6, 181–192.Google Scholar
- Kawasaki, Y. (2008). Influence of creaming on the properties of processed cheese and changes in the structure of casein during cheese making. Milchwissenschaft, 63(2), 149–152.Google Scholar
- Klostermeyer, H., & Buchheim, W. (1988). Die Mikrostruktur von Schmelzkäseerzeugnissen. Kieler Milchwirtschaftliche Forschungsberichte, 40(4), 219–231.Google Scholar
- Lee, S. K., Buwalda, R. J., Euston, S. R., Foegeding, E. A., & McKenna, A. B. (2003). Changes in the rheology and microstructure of processed cheese during cooking. Food Science and Technology, 36(3), 339–345.Google Scholar
- Lee, S. K., Klostermeyer, H., & Anema, S. G., (2015). Effect of protein-in-water concentration on the properties of model processed cheese. Int Dairy J, 50, 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2015.06.001.
- McIntyre, I., O´Sullivan, M., & O`Riordan, D. (2017). Monitoring the progression of calcium and protein solubilisation as affected by calcium chelators during small-scale manufacture of casein-based matrices. Food Chemistry, 237, 597–604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.149.
- Rayan, A. A., Kalab, M., & Ernstrom, C. A. (1980). Microstructure and rheology of process cheese. Scanning Electron Microscopy, III, 635–643.Google Scholar
- Sedlmeyer, F., Daimer, K., Rademacher, B., & Kulozik, U. (2003b). Investigations on mixed systems containing milk proteins, starch and carrageenan. Proceedings 3rd International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure, Zurich/Switzerland, 489–490.Google Scholar
- van Vliet, T., & Dentener-Kikkert, A. (1982). Influence of the composition of the milk fat globule membrane on the rheological properties of acid milk gels. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 36, 261–265.Google Scholar
- VDLUFA-Methodenbuch. (1985). Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichen Versuchs- und Untersuchungsmethodik. Darmstadt: VDLUFA-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Walter, A. W. (1995). Protein-Quervernetzungsreaktionen: Identifizierung individueller Reaktionsprodukte und Untersuchungen zum Einfluss reduzierender Kohlenhydrate. Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Germany.Google Scholar
- Wiles, P. G., Gray, I. K., & Kissling, R. C. (1998). Routine analysis of proteins by Kjeldahl and Dumas methods: review and interlaboratory study using dairy proteins. Journal of AOAC International, 81(3), 620–632.Google Scholar