Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 636–644 | Cite as

A Protein α-Amylase Inhibitor from Withania Somnifera and its Role in Overall Quality and Nutritional Value Improvement of Potato Chips during Processing

  • Sainath S. Kasar
  • Ashok P. Giri
  • Pankaj K. Pawar
  • Vijay L. MaheshwariEmail author
Original Paper


Cold storage and processing increase the reducing sugar level in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) which is responsible for browning and acrylamide formation that adversely affect sensory and nutrient quality of chips. Effect of α-amylase inhibitor from Withania somnifera (WSAI) treatment on the overall quality improvement of potato chips during processing was studied. WSAI treatment to potato slices at 200 ppm for 30 min was found to reduce browning (60%), residual amylase, and polyphenol oxidase activities (~ 40%) and reduce sugar level by 25%, respectively, over control. Color match analysis indicated an improvement in whiteness and brightness indices and a significant reduction in yellowness index of potato chips. The treatment proved to be superior over blanching and reduction in acrylamide generation during frying was which also observed in chips treated with it. Furthermore, our results were comparable to that of treatment with α-amylase inhibitor of Triticum aestivum and better than synthetic inhibitor, acarbose.


α-amylase inhibitor Reducing sugars Sensory and nutrient quality Browning of potato Acrylamide 


Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: VLM, PKP, and APG

Experimental work: SSK

Data analysis and preparation of the manuscript: SSK, VLM, PKP, and APG

Funding information

One of the authors (SSK) acknowledges the fellowship awarded by the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, under its DST-INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research) Fellowship program. Financial support from the RGSTC, Mumbai ((RGSTC/File 2018/DPP-184/CR-23) to VLM,APG and PKP and UGC-BSR Mid-Career Grant (F.1 9-205/201 7(BSR)) to VLM are gratefully acknowledged. Financial support from the UGC and Department of Sciences and Technology, New Delhi, for strengthening the research facilities in the School of Life Sciences, KBCNMU, Jalgaon, under SAP–DRS (F.4-23/2015/DRS-II [SAPII]) and FIST (SR/FST/LSI-433/2010) programs, respectively, are also gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amrein, T. M., Bachmann, S., Noti, A., Biedermann, M., Barbosa, M. F., Biedermann-Brem, S., & Amadó, R. (2003). Potential of acrylamide formation, sugars, and free asparagine in potatoes: a comparison of cultivars and farming systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(18), 5556–5560. Scholar
  2. Ayvaz, H., & Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. (2015). Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips. Food Chemistry, 174, 154–162. Scholar
  3. Biedermann, M., Biedermann-Brem, S., Noti, A., Grob, K., Egli, P., & Mändli, H. (2002). Two GC-MS methods for the analysis of acrylamide in foodstuffs. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene, 93(6), 638–652.Google Scholar
  4. Biedermann-Brem, S., Noti, A., Grob, K., Imhof, D., Bazzocco, D., & Pfefferle, A. (2003). How much reducing sugar may potatoes contain to avoid excessive acrylamide formation during roasting and baking? European Food Research and Technology, 217(5), 369–373. Scholar
  5. Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72(1–2), 248–254. Scholar
  6. Dejong, S. (1993). PLS fits closer than PCR. Journal of Chemometrics, 7(6), 551–557. Scholar
  7. DuBois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. T., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28(3), 350–356. Scholar
  8. Granato, D., & Masson, M. L. (2010). Instrumental color and sensory acceptance of soy-based emulsions: a response surface approach. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 30(4), 1090–1096. Scholar
  9. Granda, C., Moreira, R. G., & Tichy, S. E. (2004). Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips by low-temperature vacuum frying. Journal of Food Science, 69(8), E405–E411.
  10. Gunes, G., & Lee, C. Y. (1997). Color of minimally processed potatoes as affected by modified atmosphere packaging and anti-browning agents. Journal of Food Science, 62(3), 572–575.
  11. Hsu, C. L., Chen, W., Weng, Y. M., & Tseng, C. Y. (2003). Chemical composition, physical properties, and antioxidant activities of yam flours as affected by different drying methods. Food Chemistry, 83(1), 85–92. Scholar
  12. Ibrahim, R., Osman, A., Saari, N., & Rahman, R. A. (2004). Effects of anti-browning treatments on the storage quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 2, 54–58.Google Scholar
  13. İyidoǧan, N. F., & Bayındırlı, A. (2004). Effect of L-cysteine, kojic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol combination on inhibition of enzymatic browning in Amasya apple juice. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(3), 299–304. Scholar
  14. Kalita, D., & Jayanty, S. S. (2013). Reduction of acrylamide formation by vanadium salt in potato French fries and chips. Food Chemistry, 138(1), 644–649. Scholar
  15. Kasar, S. S., Marathe, K. R., Bhide, A. J., Herwade, A. P., Giri, A. P., Maheshwari, V. L., & Pawar, P. K. (2017). A glycoprotein α-amylase inhibitor from Withania somnifera differentially inhibits various α-amylases and affects the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum. Pest Management Science, 73(7), 1382–1390. Scholar
  16. Kaur, C., & Kapoor, H. C. (2000). Inhibition of enzymatic browning in apples, potatoes and mushrooms. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 59(5), 389–394.Google Scholar
  17. Khoshnam, F., Zargar, B., Pourreza, N., & Parham, H. (2010). Acetone extraction and HPLC determination of acrylamide in potato chips. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, 7(4), 853–858. 2011330182042265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumari, B., Sharma, P., & Nath, A. K. (2012). α-Amylase inhibitor in local Himalyan collections of Colocasia: isolation, purification, characterization and selectivity towards α-amylases from various sources. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 103(1), 49–55. Scholar
  19. Layer, P., Carlson, G. L., & Dimagno, E. P. (1985). Partially purified white bean amylase inhibitor reduces starch digestion in vitro and inactivates intraduodenal amylase in humans. Gastroenterology, 88(6), 1895–1902. Scholar
  20. Lee, P. M., Lee, K. H., Ismail, M., & Karim, A. (1991). Biochemical studies of cocoa bean polyphenol oxidase. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 55(2), 251–260. Scholar
  21. Liu, X., Cheng, S., Liu, J., Ou, Y., Song, B., Zhang, C., & Xie, C. (2013). The potato protease inhibitor gene, St-Inh, plays roles in the cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers by modulating invertase activity. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 86, 265–271. Scholar
  22. Ma, Y., Wang, Q., Hong, G., & Cantwell, M. (2010). Reassessment of treatments to retard browning of fresh-cut russet potato with emphasis on controlled atmospheres and low concentrations of bisulphite. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45(7), 1486–1494.
  23. Marshall, M. R., Kim, J., & Wei, C. (2000). Enzymatic browning in fruits, vegetables and sea foods. Food and Agricultural Organization, 41, 259–312.Google Scholar
  24. McGill, C. R., Kurilich, A. C., & Davignon, J. (2013). The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: a review. Annals of Medicine, 45(7), 467–473. Scholar
  25. Miller, G. L. (1972). Use of DNSA reagent for determination of reducing and non-reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 426–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moline, H. E., Buta, J. G., & Newman, I. M. (1999). Prevention of browning of banana slices using natural products and their derivatives. Journal of Food Quality, 22(5), 499–511.
  27. Montville, J. B., Ahuja, J. K., Martin, C. L., Heendeniya, K. Y., Omolewa-Tomobi, G., Steinfeldt, L. C., & Moshfegh, A. (2013). USDA food and nutrient database for dietary studies (FNDDS), 5.0. Procedia Food Science, 2, 99–112. Scholar
  28. Namiki, M. (1988). Chemistry of Maillard reactions: recent studies on the browning reaction mechanism and the development of antioxidants and mutagens. Advances in Food Research, 32, 115–184. Scholar
  29. Pedreschi, F., Kaack, K., & Granby, K. (2004). Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37(6), 679–685. Scholar
  30. Pedreschi, F., Leon, J., Mery, D., & Moyano, P. (2006). Development of a computer vision system to measure the color of potato chips. Food Research International, 39(10), 1092–1098. Scholar
  31. Pedreschi, F., Mariotti, S., Granby, K., & Risum, J. (2011). Acrylamide reduction in potato chips by using commercial asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching. LWT-food Science and Technology, 44(6), 1473–1476. Scholar
  32. Rocculi, P., Galindo, F. G., Mendoza, F., Wadsö, L., Romani, S., Dalla Rosa, M., & Sjöholm, I. (2007). Effects of the application of anti-browning substances on the metabolic activity and sugar composition of fresh-cut potatoes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 43(1), 151–157. Scholar
  33. Rodriguez-saona, L. E., Wrolstad, R. E., & Pereira, C. (1997). Modelling the contribution of sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and amino acids to non-enzymatic Browning of potato chips. Journal of Food Science, 62(5), 1001–1010.
  34. Salazar, R., Arámbula-Villa, G., Vázquez-Landaverde, P. A., Hidalgo, F. J., & Zamora, R. (2012). Mitigating effect of amaranth (Amarantus hypochondriacus) protein on acrylamide formation in foods. Food Chemistry, 135(4), 2293–2298. Scholar
  35. Severini, C., Baiano, A., De Pilli, T., Romaniello, R., & Derossi, A. (2003). Prevention of enzymatic browning in sliced potatoes by blanching in boiling saline solutions. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 36(7), 657–665. Scholar
  36. Tian, Y., Zhao, Y., Huang, J., Zeng, H., & Zheng, B. (2016). Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 197(Pt A), 714–722. Scholar
  37. Whitfield, F. B., & Mottram, D. S. (1992). Volatiles from interactions of Maillard reactions and lipids. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 31(1–2), 1–58. Scholar
  38. World Health Organisation Staff, World Health Organization. Food Safety Programme, FAO., World Health Organization, WHO, & Food Safety Programme. (2002). Health implications of acrylamide in food: report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation, WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 25–27 June 2002. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  39. Yu, H., Seow, Y. X., Ong, P. K., & Zhou, W. (2017). Effects of high-intensity ultrasound on Maillard reaction in a model system of d-xylose and l-lysine. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34, 154–163. Scholar
  40. Zhang, H., Liu, J., Hou, J., Yao, Y., Lin, Y., Ou, Y., & Xie, C. (2014). The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 12(7), 984–993. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, School of Life SciencesKBC North Maharashtra UniversityJalgaon (MS)India
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryShivaji UniversityKolhapur (MS)India
  3. 3.Plant Molecular Biology Unit, Division of Biochemical SciencesCSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPune (MS)India

Personalised recommendations