Encapsulation of Pomegranate Seed Oil by Emulsification Followed by Spray Drying: Evaluation of Different Biopolymers and Their Effect on Particle Properties
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Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is rich in bioactive compounds and is susceptible to oxidation. This research sought to encapsulate PSO in conventional and Pickering emulsions using whey protein isolate (WPI) microgels, WPI in its natural form, gum Arabic (GA), and WPI combinations with GA, maltodextrin (MD), and modified starch (Capsul®) as aqueous phase/emulsifier followed by spray drying. Emulsions with 1.39–2.55 μm droplet size, low viscosity (1.47–3.96 mPa s), and final interfacial tensions of 4.21–9.97 mN m−1 were obtained. All formulations were stable with the Turbiscan stability index between 4.57% and 12.95% at 24 h. Emulsions resulted in particles with encapsulation efficiency and yield of 56.28–73.83% and 28.07–93.99%, respectively. PSO powders had small particle sizes (9.86–22.60 μm), high glass transition temperature (103.24–121.62 °C), and oxidative stability index (OSI) of 2.71 h and in the range of 4.11–21.23 h for non-encapsulated and encapsulated PSO, respectively. All formulations promoted the oil oxidative protection when compared with the non-encapsulated one. Treatments presented feasible values of Aw, moisture, solubility, and hygroscopicity for handling and storage of the powders. WPI, WPI:Capsul®, and Pickering treatments promoted greater protection of the encapsulated oil; however, the combination of WPI with modified starch was considered the best wall material, allowing protection of PSO and future applications in the food industry.
KeywordsProtection Whey protein Pickering emulsion Glass transition temperature Microgels Polyunsaturated fatty acids
The authors thank FAPESP (Fundação de Auxílio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) for scholarship conceded to Talita A. Comunian (Process 2018/01710-5) and to Ana Gabriela da Silva Anthero (Process 2018/02132-5), CNPq for scholarship conceded to Eveling Oliveira Bezerra (Process 118279/2018-01), De Wit Specialty Oils for the pomegranate oil donation, Fonterra for WPI donation, Ingredion for maltodextrin and modified starch donation and Centro de Microscopia Eletrônica (Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP) for assistance with transmission electron microscopy.
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