Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp 1787–1797 | Cite as

Candelilla Wax-Based Coatings and Films: Functional and Physicochemical Characterization

  • Jorge A. Aguirre-Joya
  • Miguel A. Cerqueira
  • Janeth Ventura-Sobrevilla
  • Miguel A. Aguilar-Gonzalez
  • Enrique Carbó-Argibay
  • Lorenzo Pastrana Castro
  • Cristobal Noé AguilarEmail author
Original Paper


Active coatings and films made from pectin, candelilla wax, aloe mucilage, and glycerol were functionalized with an extract rich in polyphenols from Larrea tridentata (Polyphenol Larrea extract: PLE) leaves at different concentrations (320 to 920 ppm). Antimicrobial capacity was evaluated on avocados by the inoculation of spores from phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum gloesporioides and Alternaria alternata. Coatings with 920 ppm of PLE presented the major antimicrobial capacity leading to 22.0 ± 0.4% of endocarp damage for C. gloesporioides and 24.5 ± 0.6% for A. alternata when compared to uncoated (control) avocados (44.8 ± 5.0% for C. gloesporioides and 47.9 ± 9.3% for A. alternata). The coating formulation with 920 ppm of PLE, which presents the highest antimicrobial capacity, was chosen for further evaluation and characterized. The coatings were evaluated in terms of stability, charge, pH, viscosity, and density, and some authors reported stability at 7 days. The films were evaluated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and contact angle measurements. The surface topography shows that the presence and increase of PLE concentrations leads to a higher roughness of the films, and by FTIR was possible to observe the effect of the PLE incorporation on the functional groups of the film matrix. Contact angle was not affected by the incorporation of PLE in the films. The developed bioactive coating is effective to control endocarp damage by fungus invasion and thus protect avocados during storage.


Active films Active coatings Physicochemical properties Candelilla Pectin Aloe vera Antifungal capacity Avocado 


Funding information

Financial support was provided by National Forestry Commission of Mexico (CONAFOR), Autonomous University of Coahuila (UAdeC), Program Marie Curie of the European Union (project: Biotechnologies to valorize the regional food Biodiversity in Latin America, BiValBi), and BIOINGENIO S.A. de C.V. This research was supported by Norte Regional Operational Program 2014-2020 (Norte2020) through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) Nanotechnology based functional solutions (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000019).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Aguirre-Joya
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Cerqueira
    • 2
  • Janeth Ventura-Sobrevilla
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Aguilar-Gonzalez
    • 3
  • Enrique Carbó-Argibay
    • 2
  • Lorenzo Pastrana Castro
    • 2
  • Cristobal Noé Aguilar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Research (DIA-UAdeC), School of ChemistryUniversidad Autónoma de CoahuilaSaltilloMexico
  2. 2.Life Science DepartmentINL - International Iberian Nanotechnology LaboratoryBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico (CINVESTAV-IPN)Unit SaltilloSaltilloMexico

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