Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp 1659–1671 | Cite as

A Novel Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Flowerlike Nanostructures for Sensitive Determination of Formaldehyde Adulteration in Fruit Juices

  • Monika Kundu
  • Shiv Prasad
  • Prameela Krishnan
  • Sumana GajjalaEmail author
Original Paper


High-performance electrochemical enzymatic biosensor based on flowerlike α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was successfully developed for the detection of potential food adulterant, formaldehyde (formalin). The biosensor was found to be highly sensitive (744.15 μA mg−1 Lcm−2) with linear range of detection (0.01–0.3 mg/L) and showed high shelf-life (9 weeks) and precision (0.73% RSD) with reasonably good reproducibility. The biosensor application in real sample analysis was successfully accomplished using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The developed biosensor exhibited detection limits of 0.02 mg/L and 0.04 mg/L in extracted and commercial orange juice samples, respectively, while 0.03 mg/L in extracted mango juice and 0.05 mg/L in commercial mango juice were obtained. The obtained detection limits are well below the maximum daily dose reference set by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USA, for formaldehyde. Biosensor results were found in good agreement with those obtained with HPLC (p < 0.05) and highlight market acceptability with usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed method for food quality and safety evaluation.


Cyclic voltammetry Formaldehyde adulteration Fruit juice Hematite nanostructure 



We are grateful to Director, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi, India for providing the necessary facilities for research. We are thankful to Mr. Jai Singh and Mr. Dinesh CSIR-NPL for SEM and TEM measurements, respectively. We sincerely thank Dr. R.K. Kotnala for interesting discussions. We thank Manoj Kumar Pandey and Hema Bhardwaj (CSIR-NPL) for providing scientific and technical help. The sponsorship support from ICAR-IARI, New Delhi, India is thankfully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11947_2019_2318_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (829 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 828 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryDr. K.S. Krishnan MargNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research(AcSIR)GhaziabadIndia
  3. 3.Division of Agricultural PhysicsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Centre for Environmental Science and Climate Resilient AgricultureIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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