Improvement of Antioxidant Activity and Physical Stability of Chocolate Beverage Using Colloidal Cinnamon Nanoparticles
- 17 Downloads
In this study, the functionality of colloidal cinnamon nanoparticles in improving the antioxidant activity and suspension stability of a chocolate beverage formulated with two types of cocoa powder (natural and alkalised) was investigated. Cinnamon-loaded nanoparticles based on shellac and xanthan gum prepared using anti-solvent precipitation were incorporated in the chocolate beverage in multilevel proportions. The results showed that the addition of the nanoparticles improved the total phenolic content up to 40% and antioxidant activity up to 60% depending on the level of the nanoparticles added. Improvement of the physical stability of the chocolate beverage was observed regardless of the cocoa powder type. As the sedimentation index of the beverages made with alkalised and natural cocoa powders after 96 h was 5.7 and 85.7, respectively, the stabilisation effect of the nanoparticles seemed to be significantly influenced by the characteristics of the beverage raw material. The prevention of cocoa particle sedimentation was attributed to the colloidal network that originated from xanthan gum as shown by Cryo-SEM imaging or the increased viscosity of the mixture (i.e. from 2.4 to 27.7 mPa s at a shear rate of 50 s−1). Incorporation of the colloidal cinnamon nanoparticles had no significant effect on pH and a slight effect on the colour of the chocolate beverages. The formulated nanoparticles could be a promising complement to “ready-to-drink” products to enrich the bioactive content and prolong suspension stability.
KeywordsChocolate beverage Cinnamon Antioxidant Hydrocolloids Nanoparticles
We thank the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, the Republic of Indonesia, for providing a doctoral scholarship for the first author (BPPLN No. 15.1/E4.4/2015). This work was also supported by Universitas Sebelas Maret through the PDD-UNS program. Hercules Foundation is acknowledged for its financial support in the acquisition of the Scanning Electron Microscope JEOL JSM-7100F equipped with cryo-transfer system Quorum PP3010T (grant number AUGE-09-029).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Albak, F., & Tekin, A. R. (2014). The effect of addition of ingredients on physical propertıes of dark chocolate during conching. Basic Research Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1(7), 51–59.Google Scholar
- Andres-Lacueva, C., Monagas, M., Khan, N., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Urpi-Sarda, M., Permanyer, J., & Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. (2008). Flavanol and flavonol contents of cocoa powder products: influence of the manufacturing process. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(9), 3111–3117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Komes, D., Benković, M., Karlović, S., Hečimović, I., Ježek, D., & Bauman, I. (2012). Innovative formulations of chocolates enriched with plant polyphenols from Rubus idaeus L. leaves and characterization of their physical, bioactive and sensory properties. Food Research International, 48(2), 820–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Komes, D., Durgo, K., Vojvodić, A., & Bušić, A. (2015). Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(12), 7723–7734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Morais Ferreira, J. M., Azevedo, B. M., Luccas, V., & Bolini, H. M. A. (2016). Isosweetness concentrations of sucrose and high-intensity sweeteners and antioxidant activity in white chocolate with functional properties. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(9), 2114–2122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muhammad, D. R. A., & Dewettinck, K. (2017). Cinnamon and its derivatives as potential ingredients in functional foods—a review. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(Sup2), 2237–2263.Google Scholar
- Outuki, P. M., de Francisco, L. M. B., Hoscheid, J., Bonifácio, K. L., Barbosa, D. S., & Cardoso, M. L. C. (2016). Development of Arabic and xanthan gum microparticles loaded with an extract of Eschweilera nana Miers leaves with antioxidant capacity. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 499, 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Payne, M. J., Hurst, W. J., Miller, K. B., Rank, C., & Stuart, D. A. (2010). Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(19), 10518–10527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Aidoo, R. P., Mensah, M. A., Delbaere, C., De Clercq, N., Van Durme, J., & Dewettinck, K. (2016). Quality attributes of dark chocolates formulated with palm sap-based sugar as nutritious and natural alternative sweetener. European Food Research and Technology, 243(2), 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Kadivar, S., Sintang, M. D. B., Van der Meeren, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2017). Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement. European Food Research and Technology, 243(10), 1729–1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sedaghat Doost, A., Kassozi, V., Grootaert, C., Claeys, M., Dewettinck, K., Van Camp, J., & Van der Meeren, P. (2019). Self-assembly, functionality, and in-vitro properties of quercetin loaded nanoparticles based on shellac-almond gum biological macromolecules. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 129, 1024–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Toker, Ö., Dogan, M., & Göksel, M. (2012). Prediction of rheological parameters of model instant hot chocolate beverage by adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. Milchwissenschaft, 67(1), 22–25.Google Scholar