Advertisement

An Innovative Ethylene Scrubber Made of Potassium Permanganate Loaded on a Protonated Montmorillonite: a Case Study on Blueberries

  • Marianela Hazel Álvarez-Hernández
  • Ginés Benito Martínez-Hernández
  • Felipe Avalos-Belmontes
  • Ana Margarita Rodríguez-Hernández
  • Marco A. Castillo-Campohermoso
  • Francisco Artés-HernándezEmail author
Original Paper
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

The effects of a KMnO4-based innovative C2H4 scrubber (using a protonated montmorillonite (PMMT)), compared with a commercial Bi-On® R12 scrubber, were evaluated on the main quality attributes of “Duke” blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit during storage at 2 and 10 °C up to 46 days. Samples were stored under modified atmosphere packaging (with or without scrubbers) or air conditions (vented clams). Despite using a PMMT sachet containing 6-fold lower scrubber quantity compared with the commercial one (based on the C2H4 uptake capacity of both materials), the in-package C2H4 concentrations of samples were low (< 10.1 nmol L−1), regardless of the used scrubber. A mild CO2 adsorption was observed in the commercial scrubber due to the intrinsic properties of its mineral support material (zeolite). The storage temperature played a key role in the preservation of the blueberry quality (mainly determined by the fungal incidence) during storage. In that sense, decay incidence, weight loss, firmness loss, titratable acidity, and maturity index changes of blueberries were better controlled by the modified atmosphere packaging at 2 °C compared with 10 °C. The developed innovative C2H4 scrubber, in conjunction with modified atmosphere packaging, may be then considered as a helpful tool for blueberry shelf-life extension—additional 25 days at 2 °C and 14 days at 10 °C—by reducing fungi-caused decay incidence, while preserving the rest of fruit quality parameters, with a high cost-effectiveness.

Keywords

Bush berries Decay Weight loss Clay adsorption Protonated clay Quality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are greatly thankful to Prof. Dr. Jean Claude Pech for his valuable counselling. We would also like to thank Perla E. Padilla-Hernández for her valuable collaboration during the experiment. The kindly supply of blueberry fruit from Arándanos La Peña (Asturias, Spain) and commercial Bi-On® R12 sachets from Bioconservacion S.A (Barcelona, Spain) is also appreciated.

Funding

Marianela Hazel Álvarez-Hernández is supported by CONACYT (National Council of Science and Technology, Mexico) (mobility grant no. 291212).

Supplementary material

11947_2018_2224_Fig7_ESM.png (170 kb)
Online Resource 1

Respiration (A) and ethylene production (B) rates of blueberry fruit at 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C (n = 5 ± SD) (PNG 169 kb)

11947_2018_2224_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (1.2 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 1239 kb)
11947_2018_2224_Fig8_ESM.png (529 kb)
Online Resource 2

Gas partial pressures (O2/CO2; A, B; C2H4: C, D) inside blueberry packaging during storage at 2 °C (A, C) and 10 °C (B, D) up to 46 d (n = 5 ± SD) (PNG 528 kb)

11947_2018_2224_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (3.9 mb)
High Resolution Image (PNG 528 kb) (TIFF 3964 kb)
11947_2018_2224_MOESM3_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Online Resource 3 Skin colour (ΔE*), pH and decay incidence of blueberry fruit stored under different packaging conditions during storage at 2 and 10 °C up to 46 d (n = 5 ± SD) (DOCX 22 kb) (DOCX 22 kb)
11947_2018_2224_Fig9_ESM.png (517 kb)
Online Resource 4

Sensory quality of blueberry fruit stored under different packaging conditions at 2 and 10 °C on day 14 (PNG 517 kb)

11947_2018_2224_MOESM4_ESM.tif (142.5 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 145868 kb)

References

  1. Abugoch, L., Tapia, C., Plasencia, D., Pastor, A., Castro-Mandujano, O., López, L., & Escalona, V. H. (2016). Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(2), 619-626.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Almenar, E., Samsudin, H., Auras, R., Harte, B., & Rubino, M. (2008). Postharvest shelf life extension of blueberries using a biodegradable package. Food Chemistry, 110(1), 120-127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.066.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almenar, E., Samsudin, H., Auras, R., & Harte, J. (2010). Consumer acceptance of fresh blueberries in bio-based packages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(7), 1121-1128.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3922.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Álvarez-Hernández, M. H., Artés-Hernández, F., Ávalos-Belmontes, F., Castillo-Campohermoso, M. A., Contreras-Esquivel, J. C., Ventura-Sobrevilla, J. M., et al. (2018). Current scenario of adsorbent materials used in ethylene scavenging systems to extend fruit and vegetable postharvest life. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11(3), 511-525.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-018-2076-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM. (1986). Physical requirements guidelines for sensory evaluation laboratories. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  6. Avalos, F., Ortiz, J. C., Zitzumbo, R., López-Manchado, M. A., Verdejo, R., & Arroyo, M. (2008). Effect of montmorillonite intercalant structure on the cure parameters of natural rubber. European Polymer Journal, 44(10), 3108-3115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.07.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballinger, W. E., Maness, E. P., & McClure, W. F. (1978). Relationship of stage of ripeness and holding temperature to decay development of blueberries. Journal American Society for Horticultural Science, 103, 130-134.Google Scholar
  8. Barbosa, L. N., , Carciofi, M. B. A., Dannenhauer, C. E., & Monteiro, A. R. (2011). Influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília). Food Science and Technology, 31, 78-85, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beaudry, R. M., Cameron, A. C., Shirazi, A., & Dostal-Lange, D. L. (1992). Modified-atmosphere packaging of blueberry fruit: Effect of temperature on package O2 and CO2. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(3), 436-441.Google Scholar
  10. Boyette, M., Estes, E., Mainland, C. M. & Cline, B. (1993). Postharvest cooling and handling of blueberries. Postharvest Cooling and Handling of North Carolina Fresh Produce (NC State Extension Publications). https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/postharvest-cooling-and-handling-of-blueberries. Accessed 17 Nov 2018.
  11. Cameron, A. C., Beaudry, R. M., Banks, N. H., & Yelanich, M. V. (1994). Modified-atmosphere packaging of blueberry fruit: Modeling respiration and package oxygen partial pressures as a function of temperature. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 119(3), 534-539.Google Scholar
  12. Castillejo, N., Martínez-Hernández, G. B., Gómez, P. A., Artés, F., & Artés-Hernández, F. (2016). Red fresh vegetables smoothies with extended shelf life as an innovative source of health-promoting compounds. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(3), 1475-1486.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2143-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, H., Cao, S., Fang, X., Mu, H., Yang, H., Wang, X., Xu, Q., & Gao, H. (2015). Changes in fruit firmness, cell wall composition and cell wall degrading enzymes in postharvest blueberries during storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 188, 44-48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiabrando, V., & Giacalone, G. (2011). Shelf-life extension of highbush blueberry using 1-methylcyclopropene stored under air and controlled atmosphere. Food Chemistry, 126(4), 1812-1816.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cline, W. O. (1996). Postharvest infection of highbush blueberries following contact with infested surfaces. Hortscience, 31(6), 981-983.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1997.446.47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Concha-Meyer, A., Eifert, J. D., Williams, R. C., Marcy, J. E., & Welbaum, G. E. (2015). Shelf life determination of fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) stored under controlled atmosphere and ozone. International Journal of Food Science, 2015, 1-9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/164143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crisosto, C. H., Mitchell, F. G., & Ju, Z. (1999). Susceptibility to chilling injury of peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars grown in California. Hortscience, 34, 1116-1118.Google Scholar
  18. de Chiara, M. L. V., Pal, S., Licciulli, A., Amodio, M. L., & Colelli, G. (2015). Photocatalytic degradation of ethylene on mesoporous TiO2/SiO nanocomposites: Effects on the ripening of mature green tomatoes. Biosystems Engineering, 132, 61-70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2015.02.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FAO (2017). FAOSTAT statistics database. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize. Accessed 04 August 2018.
  20. Frisina, J., Barrand, L., Cooper, C., Little, C., & Clayton-Greene, K. (1988). Blueberry storage trials progress report for 1987/1988. Knoxfield, Australia: Horticultural Research Institute.Google Scholar
  21. Hruschka, H. W., & Kushman, L. J. (1963). Storage and shelf life of packaged blueberries. Marketing Research Report No. 612. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  22. ISO (2012). Sensory analysis—General guidance for selection, training and monitoring of assessors and expert sensory assessors (ISO_8586:2012). http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=63787. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  23. Kader, A. A. (2002). Postharvest technology of horticultural crops (3ed.). Richmond, VA: University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  24. Kadoura, A., Nair, A. K. N., & Sun, S. (2016). Adsorption of carbon dioxide, methane, and their mixture by montmorillonite in the presence of water. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 225, 331-341.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.01.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lobos, G. A., Callow, P., & Hancock, J. F. (2014). The effect of delaying harvest date on fruit quality and storage of late highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 87, 133-139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martínez-Hernández, G. B., Gómez, P. A., Pradas, I., Artés, F., & Artés-Hernández, F. (2011). Moderate UV-C pretreatment as a quality enhancement tool in fresh-cut Bimi® broccoli. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 62(3), 327-337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.06.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martínez-Romero, D., Bailén, G., Serrano, M., Guillén, F., Valverde, J. M., Zapata, P., et al. (2007). Tools to maintain postharvest fruit and vegetable quality through the inhibition of ethylene action: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47(6), 543-560.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390600846390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Miller, W. R., McDonald, R. E., & Cracker, T. E. (1993). Quality of two Florida blueberry cultivars after packaging and storage. HortScience, 28(2), 144-147.Google Scholar
  29. Mitcham, J. E., Crisosto, C. H., & Kader, A. A. (1998). Bushberry: Recommendations for maintaining postharvest quality (1998). Postharvest Technology Center, University of California. http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Commodity_Resources/Fact_Sheets/Datastores/Fruit_English/?uid=12&ds=798. Accessed 07 March 2018.
  30. Moreno, M. A., Castell-Perez, M. E., Gomes, C., Da Silva, P. F., & Moreira, R. G. (2007). Quality of electron beam irradiation of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) at medium dose levels. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 40(7), 1123-1132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.08.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nunes, M. C. N., Emond, J. P., Rauth, M., Dea, S., & Chau, K. V. (2009). Environmental conditions encountered during typical consumer retail display affect fruit and vegetable quality and waste. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51(2), 232-241.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.07.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paniagua, A. C., East, A. R., Hindmarsh, J. P., & Heyes, J. A. (2013). Moisture loss is the major cause of firmness change during postharvest storage of blueberry. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 79, 13-19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.12.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paniagua, A. C., East, A. R., & Heyes, J. A. (2014). Interaction of temperature control deficiencies and atmosphere conditions during blueberry storage on quality outcomes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 95, 50-59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.04.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pathare, P. B., Opara, U. L., & Al-Said, F. A. J. (2013). Colour measurement and analysis in fresh and processed foods: A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(1), 36-60.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0867-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Perkins-Veazie, P. (2016). Blueberry. In K. C. Gross, C. Y. Wang, & M. Saltveit (Eds.), The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery stocks (pp. 240-242). Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  36. Rhim, J. W., Nunes, R. V., Jones, V. A., & Swartzel, K. R. (1989). Kinetics of color change of grape juice generated using linearly increasing temperature. Journal of Food Science, 54(3), 776-777.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb04710.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sapers, G. M., Burgher, A. M., Phillips, J. G., Jones, S. B., & Stone, E. G. (1984). Color and composition of highbush blueberry cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 109, 105-111.Google Scholar
  38. Sharom, M., Willemot, C., & Thompson, J. E. (1994). Chilling injury induces lipid phase changes in membranes of tomato fruit. Plant Physiology, 105(1), 305-308.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.1.305.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Spricigo, P. C., Foschini, M. M., Ribeiro, C., Corrêa, D. S., & Ferreira, M. D. (2017). Nanoscaled platforms based on SiO2 and Al2O3 impregnated with potassium permanganate use color changes to indicate ethylene removal. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10(9), 1622-1630.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1929-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Terry, L. A., Crisosto, C. H., & Forney, C. F. (2009). Small fruit and berries. In E. M. Yahia (Ed.), Modified and controlled atmospheres for the storage, transportation, and packaging of horticultural commodities (pp. 363-396). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  41. Wang, S., Zhou, Q., Zhou, X., Wei, B., & Ji, S. (2018). The effect of ethylene absorbent treatment on the softening of blueberry fruit. Food Chemistry, 246, 286-294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Watada, A. E. (1986). Effects of ethylene on the quality of fruits and vegetables. Food Technology, 40(5), 82-85.Google Scholar
  43. Wills, R. B., & Golding, J. B. (2015). Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management of ethylene. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(7), 1379-1384.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wills, R. B. H., & Warton, M. A. (2004). Efficacy of potassium permanganate impregnated into alumina beads to reduce atmospheric ethylene. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 129(3), 433-438.Google Scholar
  45. Zhu, P., Xu, L., Zhang, C., Toyoda, H., & Gan, S. S. (2012). Ethylene produced by Botrytis cinerea can affect early fungal development and can be used as a marker for infection during storage of grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 66, 23-29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Research Department and Materials Research DepartmentUniversidad Autónoma de CoahuilaSaltilloMexico
  2. 2.Postharvest and Refrigeration Group, Department of Food EngineeringUniversidad Politécnica de CartagenaMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Agricultural Plastics DepartmentCentro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, CIQA-CONACYTSaltilloMexico

Personalised recommendations