Effects of Ultrasonic Processing and Oil Type on Maillard Reaction of D-Glucose and L-Alanine in Oil-in-Water Systems
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This study investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasonic processing on a Maillard reaction (MR) model system of D-glucose and L-alanine and its corresponding oil-in-water systems with canola, olive, palm, and coconut oil, respectively. The MR in the water phase was significantly promoted in the olive and canola oil-MR systems with the higher depletion of reactants and the higher generation of final MR products compared with those in the oil-free-MR model system; however, the MR was suppressed in the systems of palm and coconut oils. The concentration of pyrazines with shorter side chain, e.g., 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, was significantly increased in the presence of oils with a lower degree of unsaturation; meanwhile, the oils with higher degree of unsaturation suppressed the generation of the shorter side chain-pyrazines, but promoted the generation of pyrazines with a longer side chain, e.g., 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 3,5-diethyl-2methylpyrazine. Due to the oils undergoing ultrasonic processing at 80 °C, the oxidation of oils was significantly promoted, as reflected by a relatively low iodine value and high peroxide and p-anisidine values in the processed oils compared with those in the raw oils. On one hand, various carbonyl compounds were generated due to the lipid oxidation; meanwhile, these carbonyl compounds participated in the MR as part of intermediate MR products and subsequently generated various desired flavors. On the other hand, off-flavors coming from the oxidation of oils were also detected, which may affect the overall flavor profile of the oil-in-water MR systems.
KeywordsMaillard reaction High-intensity ultrasound Oil-in-water system Flavor compound
Supports from the National First-class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology (20180509), City Flower (Guangzhou) Ltd. through research grant R143-000-578-597 and Jiangsu Province under the Scientific Research Platform scheme BY2014139 are gratefully acknowledged. The authors also thank KH Roberts Pte. Ltd. (Singapore) for providing technical support and use of analytical resources. The first author also likes to thank the National University of Singapore (NUS) for financial support.
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